BI 202 muscle-Fox (Chapter 12)

BI 202 muscle-Fox (Chapter 12) - Fig. 12.1 Fig. 12.2 Fig....

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Unformatted text preview: Fig. 12.1 Fig. 12.2 Fig. 12.5 Fig. 12.6 Fig. 12.8 Fig. 12.7 Fig. 12.9 Fig. 12.13 Fig. 12.12 Fig. 12.10 Fig. 12.11 Fig. 12.13 Fig. 12.14 Fig. 12.15 Fig. 12.16 Fig. 12.17 Fig. 12.3 Fig. 12.4 Fig. 12.18 Muscle Contraction Tension generated by crossbridge cycle Load exerted on muscle by object Tension must exceed load for muscle to shorten and move the load. Types of muscle contractions Isometric increased tension, muscle does not shorten Isotonic or concentric (shortening) tension causes the muscle to shorten Eccentric (lengthening) contraction increased tension but muscle lengthens Fig. 12.20 Summation Fig. 12.19 Fig. 12.21 Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism ATP is essential for skeletal muscle contraction. The pre-formed ATP found in the muscle at the start of contraction will only support a few twitches. Three methods muscle fibers can form ATP: 1. Phosphorylation of ADP by phosphocreatine. 2. Oxidative phosphorylation of ADP in the mitochondria . 3. Phosphorylation of ADP by glycolysis in the cytosol . Phosphocreatine/Creatine Phosphate Provides rapid means of forming ATP at the beginning of a muscle contraction. Provides energy (ATP) for the first few seconds of muscle contraction acts as a bridge to slower multienzyme pathways of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. Limited by the amount of phosphocreatine that is present in the muscle initially. Fig. 12.24 Oxidative Phosphorylation Production of most of the ATP for muscle contraction at moderate levels of muscular activity. Occurs in the mitochondria Requires O 2 (aerobic) 1 glucose = 36 to 38* ATP Glycolysis If exercise intensity increases beyond about 70% of maximal oxygen uptake glycolysis contributes increased proportion of total ATP....
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BI 202 muscle-Fox (Chapter 12) - Fig. 12.1 Fig. 12.2 Fig....

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