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Unformatted text preview: BI 202 September 14, 2010 Material for Exam 2 • Specific Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine (ACh) CNS neurotransmitter – Alzheimer’s Disease Lose ACh, leads to alzheimer’s NT of somatic motor neurons Released in the connection between the nervous system to contract skeletal muscle • Important effect on the heart, digestive processes, etc Excitatory NT, also an inhibitory NT • Depends on the receptor it binds to Excitatory NT • Receptor = nicotinic ACh receptor • Nicotinic because nicotine will also bind to these receptors • • Chemically gated cation channel • Lets Na+ go in, K+ go out, then you get an EPSP Inhibitory NT • Receptor = muscarinic ACh receptor • Muscarin: poison from mushrooms, acted on another set of ACh receptors and they called them muscarinic ACh receptors • • ACh binds to receptor, ultimately result in opening of a potassium channel, potassium goes out • Will cause an IPSP How do you get rid of the ACh once it’s released in the synaptic cleft? • In the synaptic cleft, there is an enzyme called acetylcholinesterese (AChase) o Takes ACh and breaks it into acetic acid and choline Neither one of these activates the receptor, only together do they activate the receptor o o Curare: will bind to ACh receptors but not activate the receptor You will become paralyzed if you receive an injection of curare o Paralysis: Spastic paralysis: you are paralyzed because your muscles contract and stay contracted Flaccid paralysis: paralyzed because muscles won’t contract o Curare will cause flaccid paralysis o Organophosphate: inhibit AChase, paralyzes the bug’s ACh to stay in the synaptic cleft. Kills the bug because it can’t breathe in or exhale September 15, 2010 o Botulism toxin: home canning or bottling, if you didn’t seal them properly, the toxin would get in there and inhibit the release of ACh from the axon terminal; the skeletal muscle won’t contract: flaccid paralysis Now used and called botox: relax those muscles o Monoamine Neurotransmitters Derived from specific amino acids Catecholamines : derived from the amino acid tyrosine • Dopamine o Decrease in dopamine releasing neurons, leads to Parkinson’s Disease o Inhibitory NT and helps to get rid of unwanted movements Lose the dopamine, you get the unwanted movements: tremors o Reuptake of dopamine is inhibited by cocaine • Norepinephrine o Common NT • **Ephinepherine o Aka adrenaline o Comes from the adrenal gland Serotonin • Derived from tryptophan • Prozac, Paxil, , Luvox: antidepressants (SSRI, serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors) o Blocking its reuptake allows it to stay in the synaptic cleft for a much longer time Many NTs have –ergic on the end: dopaminergic: means dopamine binds to it • Norepinepherine/noradrenaline: noradrenergic or adrenergic • Cholinergic neurons: release acetylcholine Removal from the synaptic cleft...
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