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Unformatted text preview: BI 202 September 14, 2010 Material for Exam 2 Specific Neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine (ACh) CNS neurotransmitter Alzheimers Disease Lose ACh, leads to alzheimers NT of somatic motor neurons Released in the connection between the nervous system to contract skeletal muscle Important effect on the heart, digestive processes, etc Excitatory NT, also an inhibitory NT Depends on the receptor it binds to Excitatory NT Receptor = nicotinic ACh receptor Nicotinic because nicotine will also bind to these receptors Chemically gated cation channel Lets Na+ go in, K+ go out, then you get an EPSP Inhibitory NT Receptor = muscarinic ACh receptor Muscarin: poison from mushrooms, acted on another set of ACh receptors and they called them muscarinic ACh receptors ACh binds to receptor, ultimately result in opening of a potassium channel, potassium goes out Will cause an IPSP How do you get rid of the ACh once its released in the synaptic cleft? In the synaptic cleft, there is an enzyme called acetylcholinesterese (AChase) o Takes ACh and breaks it into acetic acid and choline Neither one of these activates the receptor, only together do they activate the receptor o o Curare: will bind to ACh receptors but not activate the receptor You will become paralyzed if you receive an injection of curare o Paralysis: Spastic paralysis: you are paralyzed because your muscles contract and stay contracted Flaccid paralysis: paralyzed because muscles wont contract o Curare will cause flaccid paralysis o Organophosphate: inhibit AChase, paralyzes the bugs ACh to stay in the synaptic cleft. Kills the bug because it cant breathe in or exhale September 15, 2010 o Botulism toxin: home canning or bottling, if you didnt seal them properly, the toxin would get in there and inhibit the release of ACh from the axon terminal; the skeletal muscle wont contract: flaccid paralysis Now used and called botox: relax those muscles o Monoamine Neurotransmitters Derived from specific amino acids Catecholamines : derived from the amino acid tyrosine Dopamine o Decrease in dopamine releasing neurons, leads to Parkinsons Disease o Inhibitory NT and helps to get rid of unwanted movements Lose the dopamine, you get the unwanted movements: tremors o Reuptake of dopamine is inhibited by cocaine Norepinephrine o Common NT **Ephinepherine o Aka adrenaline o Comes from the adrenal gland Serotonin Derived from tryptophan Prozac, Paxil, , Luvox: antidepressants (SSRI, serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors) o Blocking its reuptake allows it to stay in the synaptic cleft for a much longer time Many NTs have ergic on the end: dopaminergic: means dopamine binds to it Norepinepherine/noradrenaline: noradrenergic or adrenergic Cholinergic neurons: release acetylcholine Removal from the synaptic cleft...
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- Fall '10