BI 202 Exam 3 Material

BI 202 Exam 3 Material - Exam Three Material Tuesday,...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam Three Material Tuesday, October 18, 2011 8:00 AM Chapter Thirteen Cardiovascular Physiology: Heart and Circulation Functions of Cardiovascular System Transportation of respiratory gases, delivery of nutrients & hormones, waste removal, temperature regulation, clotting, & immune function. Includes cardiovascular & lymphatic systems Heart pumps blood thru cardiovascular system Includes arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins Blood vessels carry blood from heart to cells & back Lymphatic system picks up excess fluid filtered out in capillary beds & returns it to veins. Lymph nodes are part of immune system. Structure of Heart 4 Chambers: o 2 atria receive blood from venous system o 2 ventricles pump blood to arteries o 2 sides of heart are 2 pumps separated by muscular septum Fibrous Skeleton of Heart Atria & ventricles separated by dense connective tissue the fibrous skeleton Atrial cells attach to top of fibrous skeleton & form a myocardial unit Ventricle cells attach to bottom of fibrous skeleton & form another myocardial unit Fibrous skeleton also forms rings (annuli fibrosi) that hold the heart valves Wednesday, October 19, 2011 8:00 AM Pulmonary Circulation Blood from tissues enters superior & inferior vena cavae which empty into right atrium Blood then goes to right ventricle which pumps it through pulmonary arteries to lungs Systemic Circulation Oxygenated blood from lungs passes thruough pulmonary veins to left atrium, then to left ventricle which pumps it through aorta to the body Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation Pulmonary circulation is path of blood from right ventricle through lungs & back to heart Systemic circulation: blood from left ventricle to body & back to heart Rate of flow through systemic circulation = flow rate through pulmonary circuit Resistance in systemic circuit > resistance in pulmonary circuit. Therefore the amount of work done by the left ventricle pumping to systemic is 5-7X greater than right ventricle, causing the left ventricle to be more muscular (3-4X thicker) than the right Atrioventricular (AV) Valves Blood flows from atria to ventricles through one-way AV valves RIGHT. Tricuspid valve: between right atrium & right ventricle LEFT. Bicuspid (mitral) valve: between left atrium & left ventricle AV valves open and close by pressure changes in heart Papillary muscles connected to AV valves by chordae tendineae. Prevent high pressure developed by ventricular contraction from everting AV valves Semilunar (SL) Valves Pressure rise during ventricular contraction (systole) pumps blood through aortic & pulmonary semilunar valves Pressure drop during ventricular relaxation (diastole) closes SL valves Cardiac Cycle A repeating pattern of contraction & relaxation of the heart Systole refers to contraction phase Diastole refers to relaxation phase Both atria contract simultaneously; both ventricles contract 0.1-0.2 sec later.Both atria contract simultaneously; both ventricles contract 0....
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2012 for the course BI 202 taught by Professor Winn during the Fall '10 term at Northern Michigan University.

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BI 202 Exam 3 Material - Exam Three Material Tuesday,...

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