5_CH7_2_Synapse - Chapter 7 The Nervous System (2): The...

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Chapter 7 The Nervous System (2): The Synapse (pp 170-191) The Synapse Electrical Synapses: Gap Junctions Chemical Synapses Release of neurotransmitter Action of neurotransmitter Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter Chemically regulated Channels Ligand-Operated Channels G-Protein-Operated Channels Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Acetylcholine in the PNS Acetylcholine in the CNS Monoamines as Neurotransmitters Serotonin as a Neurotransmitter Dopamine as a Neurotransmitter Norepinephrine as a Neurotransmitter Other Neurotransmitters Amino Acids as Neurotransmitters Polypeptides as Neurotransmitters Endocanabinoids as Neurotransmitters NO and CO as Neurotransmitters Synaptic Integration
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The Synapse Functional connection between two neurons, or a  Transmission in one direction only, from axon of first  (presynaptic) neuron to second (postsynaptic) neuron. Synaptic transmission is through a chemically-gated  channel. Presynaptic terminal (‘bouton’) releases neurotransmitter (NT).
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The Synapse
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Electrical Synapse Impulses regenerated in adjacent cells without interruption. Gap junctions: Adjacent cells electrically coupled through a channel. Each  gap junction composed of 12 connexin proteins. Examples: Smooth and cardiac muscles, brain, and glial cells.
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Chemical Synapse Terminal bouton is  separated from  postsynaptic cell by  synaptic cleft . Neurotransmitters are  released from  synaptic vesicles . Vesicles fuse with axon  membrane and NT released  by exocytosis. Amount of NT released  depends upon frequency of  APs arriving.
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Synaptic Transmission AP travels down axon to bouton  and opens  voltage gated Ca 2+ channels Inward diffusion of  Ca 2+ into bouton  activates  calmodulin which activates  protein kinase   Protein kinase phosphorylates  synapsin proteins  that aid in  release of NTs . NT release is rapid because vesicles  form fusion-complexes at “docking  site.” Ca++ high Ca++ Low
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Synaptic Transmission Neurotransmitters  are released and  diffuse across  synaptic cleft . NT (a ligand) binds to specific  receptor proteins  in  postsynaptic cell membrane. Chemically-gated ion channels  open.  Either : Depolarization called  EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential). OR Hyperpolarization called  IPSP  (inhibitory postsynaptic  potential) Neurotransmitter inactivated and  transmission ended.
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multipolar neuron. Integration of input (EPSPs and IPSPs) generally occurs in the cell body, with the axon serving to conduct action potentials. Depolarization
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2012 for the course BI 202 taught by Professor Winn during the Fall '10 term at Northern Michigan University.

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5_CH7_2_Synapse - Chapter 7 The Nervous System (2): The...

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