13_CH16_RESPIRATORY - Chapter 16 RESPIRATION Outline...

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Respiratory Structures Physical Aspects of Ventilation Mechanics of Breathing Gas Exchange in the Lungs Regulation of Breathing/Control of Ventilation Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport • CO 2  Transport Acid-Base Balance of the Blood Chapter 16: RESPIRATION Outline
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1. Ventilation 2. Gas Exchange 3. Gas Transport 4. Gas Exchange 5. Cellular Respiration
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Respiration Comprises 3 related functions:  1.Ventilation (breathing). 2.Gas Exchange (a)air/blood;(b)blood/tissues 3.Oxygen Utilization by tissues in cellular respiration. External respiration (1&2a together). with blood and alveoli. Internal respiration (2b&3 together). Gas exchange between blood & tissues; O 2  used by tissues.   Gas exchange passive - diffusion (v. rapid in lung).
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Fig 16.4: Conducting and respiratory zones
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Lung Alveoli and Pulmonary Capillaries Gas exchange occurs  across alveoli (300  million, 60-80 m 2  total  surface area). Only 2 thin cells  blood: 1 alveolar + 1  endothelial.   DIFFUSION FAST: Large SA + thin barrier Fig 16.1
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Fig 16.8 Visceral & parietal pleurae normally stick to each other so that lungs remain in contact with chest Intrapulmonary & Intrapleural Pressures
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Physical Aspects of Ventilation Ventilation results from pressure differences brought  about by changes in lung volumes Air moves from higher to lower pressure. Compliance, elasticity, & surface tension of lungs influence ease of ventilation. Intrapleural space is thin fluid layer between  visceral pleura parietal pleura lining thoracic cavity walls.
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Pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume. Boyle’s Law (P = 1/V)
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Fig 16.14
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Quiet Breathing Inspiration  o c c urs   m a inly be c a us e   diaphragm contracts , inc re a s ing   tho ra c ic  vo lum e   ve rtic a lly. External intercostal muscles c o ntrib ute   to  ins pira tio n a  little   by ra is ing  rib s ,  inc re a s ing  tho ra c ic   vo lum e  la te ra lly. Expiration  a t re s t is   due  to  pa s s ive  re c o il. Fig 16.14
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Deep Breathing Deep Inspiration involves contraction  of  external intercostals, plus pectoralis minor & sternocleido- mastoid muscles to  elevate ribs.  Forced Expiration involves contraction  of  internal intercostals & abdominal muscles. Fig 16.14
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Fig 16.13 inspiration expiration Pulmonary ventilation consists of inspiration (= inhalation) & expiration (= exhalation). Accomplished by alternately increasing & decreasing volumes of thorax & lungs
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Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation Insert fig. 16.15 Fig 16.15 (a) before inspiration (c) during expiration (b) during inspiration
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2012 for the course BI 202 taught by Professor Winn during the Fall '10 term at Northern Michigan University.

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13_CH16_RESPIRATORY - Chapter 16 RESPIRATION Outline...

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