15_CH18_DIGESTIVE_F11

15_CH18_DIGESTIVE_F11 - Chapter 18: The Digestive System...

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Introduction to the Digestive System From Mouth to Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Neural and Endocrine Regulation of the Digestive  System Proteins Chapter 18: The Digestive System Summary; Review Activities
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Fig 18.2
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Fig 18.1: Digestion of food molecules through hydrolysis reactions Inside gastrointestinal (GI) tract, food is broken down by hydrolysis into molecular monomers. Absorption of monomers occurs in small intestine.
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Processes of Digestion Digestion – b re a king  do wn o f ing e s te d m a te ria ls  (o c c urs   prim a rily in firs t 20-25%  o f s m a ll inte s tine ). Secretion  – re le a s e  o f s ub s ta nc e s  into  the  G I tra c t.   Exo c rine : e nzym e s , b ile , HC l, m uc o us . Endo c rine : ho rm o ne s  tha t re g ula te  dig e s tive  s ys te m . Absorption  – m o ve m e nt o f m o le c ule s  pro duc e d b y  dig e s tio n fro m  G I tra c t to  the  b lo o d o r lym ph. Motility  – s m o o th m us c le  c o ntra c tio ns  tha t m o ve  m a te ria ls   Storage and Elimination – te m po ra ry s to ra g e , e lim ina tio n  o f indig e s tib le  fo o d m o le c ule s .
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Fig 18.3
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Fig 18.3
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Fig 18.2
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From Mouth to Stomach Fig 18.4: Peristalsis in the esophagus Peristalsis ( wa ve -like  m us c ula r  c o ntra c tio ns )  pro pe ls  fo o d  thro ug h G I tra c t. After food passes into  stomach, the  gastroesophageal sphincter c o ns tric ts ,  pre ve nting  re flux.
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Inner surface of stomach is highly folded into rugae. Contractions of stomach churn chyme, mixing it with gastric secretions and eventually propelling food into small intestine. Fig 18.5: Primary regions and structures of the stomach
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Fig 18.7: Gastric pits and gastric glands of the mucosa Gastric mucosa has  gastric pits in its  fo lds . Exocrine  gastric glands line  fo lds  de e pe r in m uc o s a .
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Gastric glands contain cells  that secrete different  products that form  gastric juice . 1. Goblet cells s e c re te   mucous . 2. Parietal cells secrete HCl & intrinsic factor (ne c e s s a ry fo r B 12   a b s o rptio n in  inte s tine ). 3. Chief cells secrete pepsinogen (pre c urs o r o f pe ps in). Fig 18.7: Gastric pits and gastric glands of the mucosa
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like (ECL) cells  secrete  histamine & serotonin . 5. G cells secrete  gastrin. 6. D cells secrete  somatostatin.
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15_CH18_DIGESTIVE_F11 - Chapter 18: The Digestive System...

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