SOC 101 Topic 2 Qs

SOC 101 Topic 2 Qs - SOC 101 Topic 2 1. What is positivism?...

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SOC 101 – Topic 2 1. What is positivism? What is Comte's contribution to the founding of sociology as a discipline? (Course Notes) Positivism refers to such a belief that only knowledge acquired through science is the true and authentic knowledge. Comte’s contribution to the founding of sociology as a discipline is that he emphasized observation and experimentation. He felt that human conditions could be better studied through scientific methods and this is the foundation of all social science. 2. What kind of social issues concerned Durkheim, Marx, and Weber? (All in Course Notes) Durkheim: Since people had to rely on each other more than before, Durkheim was concerned with what would unite “city folks” with different interests and views. Marx: The great unfairness of social inequality and change brought on through a constant exploitation of workers. Weber: Weber's concern was that humans were becoming "specialists without spirit, sensualists without heart; this nullity imagines that it has attained a level of civilization never before achieved What is "mechanic solidarity" and what is "organic solidarity"? What is "exploitation"? “Mechanic solidarity” is social union by a commonly shared set of beliefs or religion. “Organic solidarity” is union of a society through knowledge of a necessity to depend on one another’s different strengths for a linked and fulfilled society, using a “division of labor” to include all things with different people specializing in different things. “Exploitation” means that the capitalist makes the workers work not only for their pay, but also for their boss's profit. What did Marx consider the root of human misery in capitalist societies? Marx considered the exploitation of workers as the root of human misery in capitalist societies. What does "rationalization" mean in Weber's understanding? In Weber’s understanding, “rationalization” is making things more calculable and predictable, “specialists without spirit, sensualists without heart…” 3. What is the rational choice principle? (p. 69-71) The proposition that within the limits of their information and available choices, guided by their preferences and tastes, humans will tend to maximize. 4.
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SOC 101 Topic 2 Qs - SOC 101 Topic 2 1. What is positivism?...

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