SOC 101 Topic 3 Qs

SOC 101 Topic 3 Qs - SOC 101 Topic 3 1. Understand what...

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SOC 101 – Topic 3 1. Understand what each of the eight steps of sociological inquiry means. (pp. 21-22) A. Theory Construction A.1. Wonder: become curious about some phenomenon A.2. Conceptualize: isolate and define key elements A.3. Theorize: state why and how concepts are related B. Theory Testing 4. Operationalize: select valid indicators of concepts. 5. Hypothesize: deduce observable predictions. Research 6. Observe: obtain evidence pertinent to the predictions 7. Analyze: systematically compare evidence and predictions. 8. Assess: reject or adjust theory if predictions fail. 2. What are dependent and independent variables? Give examples of them. (p. 78) Independent variable: something we think might be the cause of something else Dependent variable: the consequence (or the thing that is being caused). Variables being caused are dependent on the causal variable, while the causal variables are not dependent but are independent. Example: If cohabitation will cause the divorce rate to go down, then divorce rate is the dependent variable and cohabitation is the independent variable. 3. What constitutes causal relationship? What is correlation (positive or negative)? (p. 78) The three criterion which must be met to determine causation (something that makes something else happen. These three items are: time order (a cause must occur BEFORE its effect), correlation (when variables change or vary in unison), and spurious relationships (correlations such as between height and reading, they appear to affect causation but do not; scientists must make sure that they are NOT examining a spurious
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SOC 101 Topic 3 Qs - SOC 101 Topic 3 1. Understand what...

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