BI 215 Ch3 - closely related to species in other taxa...

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Key items, Ch. 2 Trees for history and classification What is a phylogeny? How can we build a phylogeny? What are some key terms used in phylogenetics? What is maximum parsimony? What is a molecular clock? What are some problems in phylogenetic analysis?
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Ch. 3: Patterns of Evolution
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Patterns of evolution Phylogenies show relationships between  organisms Also can show changes in characteristics  of organisms Even with no fossil record! Morphology, behavior, geographic  distribution….
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Figure 3.1 Tracing the path of evolution to Homo sapiens from the universal ancestor of all life (1)
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Changes and classification Cladogenesis Branching Anagenesis Change within a lineage Phylogenetic (cladistic) classification  focuses on  cladogenesis
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Phylogeny and classification Monophyletic All known descendents from a single common  ancestor Polyphyletic Contains unrelated lineages that are most 
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Unformatted text preview: closely related to species in other taxa Paraphyletic Monophyletic except for some descendents of the common ancestor that are in other taxa Figure 3.2 Monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groups Cladistics Cladistics includes 2 parts Method for discovering pattern of evol. History (max. parsimony) Criteria for classification Taxa should only be monophyletic Willi Hennig was the father of cladistics Phylogeny and character evolution Phylogenies can be used as a tool to study the evolution of traits Use parsimony to figure out when evolution happened Can also reconstruct state in common ancestor Literally, for proteins! When did opposable toes evolve? Figure 3.5 The forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrate (Part 3)...
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BI 215 Ch3 - closely related to species in other taxa...

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