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Unformatted text preview: BI 405 – Immunology Monday, January 16, 2012 History of Immunology Athenian Epidemic (430-426 BC) • Thucydides noted that survivors of the disease had immunity • Those who survived could work with those who still had smallpox, and never got it again - immunity Smallpox • Caused by virus • Outward sign: pustules • Smallpox – 30% mortality • rate. • Late 1700’s killed: o 10% of population o 20% in cities o 33% of all child deaths Immunization against smallpox known in China from at least the 10 th century AD. Dried the matter from pustules and inserted in nostrils. Turkey – variolation using crusts (scabs) from smallpox patient with mild form. • Variolation: make scrapes or cuts in the skin and rub scabs into those cuts • Helped with immunization Lady Mary Wortley Montaque – (1718) had her children infected with smallpox. • From England, in Turkey when she had her children infected because she saw this firsthand • Then, Charles Maitland – trial of smallpox variolation on six condemmed prisoners (August 1721). All survived after being exposed to smallpox. Repeated experiment on five orphaned children. • Treated the daughters of the Prince of Wales o Royalty began treating their children, then common people • 2-3% of variolated persons died or contracted another disease (tuberculosis, syphilis) • *case-fatality rate associated with variolation was 10 times lower than contracting the naturally occurring disease Edward Jenner • Cowpox – milkmaids that developed cowpox did not get smallpox o Cowpox: cows got pustules on their udders o Folk medicine idea that if you got cowpox, you wouldn’t get smallpox Benjamin Jesty • Farmer aware that if milkmaids got cowpox, they wouldn’t get smallpox • During smallpox breakout in 1774, he injected his family with cowpox • First to really do this; Edward Jenner was after this. • Used fluid from cowpox pustule to inoculate 8-year old boy, James Phipps (son of his gardener), subsequently inoculated boy with smallpox lesion (variolation later on) (1798) o Phipps didn’t get smallpox o Jenner wrote about this and Royal Academy wouldn’t publish it because said he didn’t have enough information • Latin for cow = vacca, cowpox = vaccinia • Jenner called new treatment – vaccination • Clergy was NOT happy about this o Jenner was equally honored and reviled Smallpox Now • Louis Pasteur • Studied Cholera – used old cultures on chickens, chickens recovered, were resistant to disease o Went on vacation, re-injected the chickens and they still didn’t get sick • Cholera: Causes severe diarrhea • Attenuated vs. virulent o Virulent: still has ability to cause disease o Attenuated: weakened Vaccinations are attenuated forms of the pathogen or a killed form of the pathogen o What Pasteur did with the Cholera was use attenuated forms because they were old o Spent the rest of his career looking for ways to attenuate bacteria/viruses • Discovered methods to make attenuated forms of disease organisms, called them vaccines...
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