chapt07 - Chapter 7-Anatomy and Function of a Gene...

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Chapter 7—Anatomy and Function of a Gene: Dissection Through Mutation Fill in the Blank 1. A ______________________ allele is one whose frequency is greater than 1% in a natural population. Ans: wild-type Difficulty: 1 2. ______________________ are heritable changes in base sequence that can affect phenotype. Ans: mutations Difficulty: 1 3. A ____________ is a specific protein-encoding segment of DNA composed of a distinctive set of nucleotide pairs. Ans: gene Difficulty: 1 4. A mutation that changes a wild-type allele of a gene to a different allele is called a ____________ mutation. Ans: forward Difficulty: 2 5. A ________________ mutation causes a novel allele to be converted back to a wild- type allele. Ans: reverse Difficulty: 2 6. An ____________________ is a type of mutation where a segment of a chromosome is rotated 180 ° . Ans: inversion Difficulty: 1 7. A mound of genetically identical bacteria derived from a single bacterium is called a __________________. Ans: colony Difficulty: 1 8. Any physical or chemical agent that increases the rate of mutation above the spontaneous rate is a _________________________. Ans: mutagen Difficulty: 1 Page 109
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9. A collection of mutations that do not complement each other is known as a __________________ ____________________. Ans: complementation group Difficulty: 3 10. A cell that can synthesize all its needed molecules for growth from minimal media is ________________________. Ans: prototrophic Difficulty: 3 11. The end of a polypeptide that contains a free amino group that is not connected to another amino acid is called the ____________________________. Ans: N-terminus Difficulty: 1 12. When a protein is exposed to heat, extremes of pH, or molecules such as urea or mercaptoethanol it unfolds and is said to be _________________________. Ans: denatured Difficulty: 2 13. The three-dimensional structure of a protein consisting of two of more polypeptide chains is called _______________________structure. Ans: quaternary Difficulty: 2 14. A ____________________ mutation produces either much less of a protein or a protein with very weak but detectible function. Ans: hypomorphic Difficulty: 3 15. ___________________________ results when one wild-type allele does not provide enough gene product to produce the wild-type phenotype. Ans: haploinsufficiency Difficulty: 2 Multiple Choice 16. The term mutation refers to: A) only changes in the DNA that result in new phenotypes. B) only changes in the DNA that result in novel proteins. C) any change in the DNA of a cell. D) a heritable change in the DNA of a cell. E) any change in the cell that changes its survival chances. Ans: D Difficulty: 2 Page 110
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17. A heritable change in DNA base sequence is called a: A) forward mutation. B) reversion.
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course BIO GENETIC taught by Professor Binnanger during the Spring '11 term at FAU.

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chapt07 - Chapter 7-Anatomy and Function of a Gene...

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