Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Control of Gene Expression in...

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Chapter 16 Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes
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General Principles Bacterial cells respond to their environment Rapid changes in the environment lead to rapid biochemical changes within the bacterial cell Occurs through regulation of gene expression
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Eukaryotic Cells Face Unique Challenges Multicellular organisms have numerous specialized cells with specific functions All cells have the same genetic information, yet only a subset of those genes are expressed in any single cell type Gene expression must be regulated to occur in the right amount, at the right time and in
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Genes and Regulatory Elements Gene is any DNA sequence that is transcribed into an RNA Structural genes encode proteins needed for cellular processes such as metabolism, biosynthesis, structure, hormone, etc. Regulatory genes have products that are either RNA or protein, which function in controlling transcription or translation
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Regulatory elements are DNA sequences that are NOT transcribed into RNA Affect the expression of the genes to which they are physically linked Many protein products of regulatory genes bind to regulatory elements
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DNA Binding Proteins A critical part of gene regulation requires proteins that bind to a specific DNA sequence Regulatory proteins often have characteristic protein domains Domains are usually ~60-90 amino acids, of which only
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DNA Binding Motifs Simple protein structures that are frequently found associated with DNA binding proteins Common ones include: Helix-loop-helix Zinc fingers Leucine zipper
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Two α -helices connected by a turn
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Loop of amino acids associated with a zinc ion. Often find several zinc fingers in a DNA-binding proteins. Fingers fit into the major groove of the DNA helix
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Helix of leucine residues and an arm of basic amino acids
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Operons in Bacteria Major difference in gene organization in bacterial and eukaryotic cells In bacteria, genes with related functions are clustered together and often transcribed into a single mRNA - Operon In eukaryotes, genes with related functions are typically scattered throughout the genome and each gene is expressed as a
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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Control of Gene Expression in...

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