DSM-IV(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)Abnormality defined: A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern • Associated with distress or disability • Not simply a predictable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event• Considered to reflect behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individualCan be correlated with ICD-10 (medical disorder classification)No causality (etiology), but “atheoretical”Axis I (clinical conditions, depression/anxiety) II (perminant, personality/mental retardation) III (medical conditions) IV (psychosocial/environmental) V (overall level of disorder)Why classify? – provide nomenclature, enable structure info., how patients should be treatedHistoryExorcism… mayoke, primary treatment for demonic possessionHippocrates: categorized mania, melancholia(depression), phrenitis(schizo)/ dream+personalityLater Greek and Roman: Egyptian=therapeutic, Galen=nervous system anatomy ,Roman medicine=comfortPinel: French, experimented kindness (Tuke: performed similar work in England)Benjamin Rush: moral management in America
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