; genetic, neurochemicals (serotonin, norepinephrine), abnormal hormone regulation, sleep cycle and sunlight deficiency, chronic stress, Early adversity as a diatheses, stressful life events,
personality and cognitive diatheses. Theories; Beck (“take care of yourself before others”, high levels of dysfunctional beliefs and high stress=major depression), Seligman (learned helplessness), Abramson et al.
(attributions and pessimistic attributional style), Hopelessness theory, Interpersonal effects (e.g., lack of social supports and social skills)
; Pharmacotherapy, MAOIs, antidepressants, SSRIs, Lithium,
mood stabilizers, Anticonvulsants, Antipsychotics, ECT, TMS, light therapy, Psychotherapy, CBT, Mindfulness cognitive therapy, Behavioral activation, IPT, Family&marital therapy. *UNIPOLAR*:
(5<); Depressed most of the day, Lack of pleasure, Weight loss or gain, Sleep disturbance, Psychomotor agitation, Do not meet criteria for mixed episode(both depression and euphoria), Fatigue,
Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, Diminished ability to think, Suicidal ideation, Impairment in Axis IV(psychological/environment). Affects womanx2 [
Melancholic: genetic, childhood trauma
] Lost interest or
pleasure in most activities (i.e., anhedonia), Early morning awakenings, Depression is worse in the mornings, Psychomotor retardation, Loss of appetite and weight, Excessive guilt, Depression is different from
the sadness experiences during a nonmelancholic depression [
] Loss of contact with reality; delusions (i.e., false beliefs) or hallucinations (i.e., false sensory perceptions), Delusions or hallucinations are
mood-congruent, Feelings of guilt and worthlessness, Longer episodes and poorer long-term prognosis [
] Mood reactivity (i.e., mood elevates in response to positive events), 2< of:
Significant weight gain or increase in appetite, Hypersomnia, Leaden paralysis, Long-standing pattern of being acutely sensitive to interpersonal reject.
Inflated self-esteem, Decreased need
for sleep, talkative, Racing thoughts, Psychomotor agitation, Do not meet criteria for mixed episode, Easily distracted, Increase in goal-directed activity, Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities, Need for
hospitalization, Impairment in Axis IV.
; depression at least 2yrs, (2< of) Poor appetite or overeating, Insomnia or hypersomnia, Low energy, Low self-esteem, Poor concentration,
Hopelessness, MDD not present.
; Major depression and Dysthymic combined. *BIPOLAR* (additional causes can be Basal ganglia and Amygdala, Variations in brain glucose metabolic rates,
Personality traits: Neuroticism, High achievers, Increased sensitivity to rewards, Pessimism):
; at least 2 yrs, hypomania and depressive symptoms are present that do not meet MDD, has not
been without symptoms for more than 2 months, No Major Depressive, Manic Episode, or Mixed Episode present, significant distress or impairment.