Discuss culturally competent and clinical psychology.
– knowing cultural differences in
determining the level of abnormality. Important not to over-pathologize.
Discuss the MMPI-2, validity, reliability, test-taking attitudes measurements.
published in 1943 (MMPI by Hathaway and Mckinley), 2
edition in 1989 (better
understanding of culture norms). World-wide used most popular objective personality
test, 567 T/F statements about yourself.
Validity: to measure the authenticity of test
taking attitudes - “fake good/bad” or answering randomly. Strengths:
PSYCHOMETRICS= established reliability and vailditiy, and comprehensiveness.
Limitations: length, reading requirement, attention req., emphasis on abnormality.
*Additional note*: Stephen Finn developed an interesting use of MMPI-2, feedback used
as a brief therapeutic intervention; what psychologist intends as assessment clients can
experience as therapeudic.
What is a shortcoming of projective tests.
– Lacks objectivity in terms of scoring and
interpretation (considered to be inferior to objective tests
usage of projective tests has
declined over years). Though advocates claim that they are less “fake-able”.
not formally or empirically scored (TAT, Sentence Completion Test).
Define and discuss efficacy vs. effectiveness.
– Efficacy: psychotherapy which works “in
the lab”, effectiveness:
works “in the real world”.
What do efficacy studies say about
– better internal validity than external validity, overall positive outcome
(average 80% better than those did not receive psychotherapy, benefits last)
*effectiveness studies show similar result but less research has conducted (
is the largest).
What do Norcross, Hedges, and Prochaska, 2002, say about the
future of psychotherapy?
- Rise in the use of: cognitive and behavioral approach,
culturally sensitive therapy, eclectic/integrative approaches, and empirically supported or
evidence-based forms of therapy.
Discuss Smith et al, 1980.
– a primary finding of a landmark meta-analysis of 475
psychotherapy efficacy studies show that the average effect size was 0.85.
define & discuss major elements.
Goal of therapy. Primary goal.
– To make the unconscious conscious: “insight” into thoughts, feelings, and other mental
activities previously outside of awareness by Free Association, Dream Interpretation,
Freudian slips, Resistance(missed appointment, tardy, change subject)
can happen as a result of all these.
Discuss defense mechanisms- what is displacement,
reaction formation, sublimation…
- Repression—keep impulse in unconscious,
Projection—attribute impulse to others,
Reaction formation—do opposite of impulse,
Displacement—redirect impulse to safer one,
Sublimation—redirect impulse in a way