Difference between aggression & violence = intention/motivation, violence is a form of aggression. Instrumental : satisfaction is derived from obtaining a goal, usually not from causing harm. Hostile : goal is to harm, uniqueness of humans, closer def. of violence. Impulsive/Stimulus seeking (Mawson) : seeks intense sensory stimulus (nervous system impairment?). Relational: harm others through damaging relationship. Indirect aggression and Social Aggression (intend to damage self-esteem) as alternative aggression forms (Simmons). Structural: violence accepted in society for sanctioned reasons. Modality - Verbal or Physical, Quality - Acted on or not, Immediacy - Direct or Indirect action - immediate or delayed, Visibility - Overt or Covert, Instigation - Unprovoked or retaliator (revenge). Stats: MALES: 15-24; homicide (2), 25-34; suicide (2). FEMALE: 15-44; suicide (4), 15-24; homicide (2). BLACK: 15-34; homicide (1). WHITE: 15-34; suicide (2). Theories: Ethological by Lorenz… Individual is continually building up aggressive energy (innate tendency). Too much triggering environmental stimuli the aggressive impulse will be acted upon. Preventing: socially acceptable release valves for the aggressive energy (ex. Sports). Sociobiological … Aggression is adaptive from an evolutionary point of view, passed on via reproduction - “the strong survive” (especially on sexual aggression - the goal to reproduce). Behavioral Genetics … aggression is hereditary - the children of aggressive people tend to be more aggressive even in the absence of environmental aspects (genetic ex. Twins, ADHD, XYY). Biological explanations: frontal lobe dysfunction, increase androgen, reduced serotonin and cortisol *genetic and bio = RISK FACTORS* Freud … Aggression is the inevitable result of the conflicts between our unconscious drives and impulses, thru catharsis release aggression. Frustration-Aggression (original: Dollard & Miller) … reduce frustration sometimes by being aggressive- if worked, use the same aggressive strategy next time. –Revised Cognitive Neoassociatism … many other negative affect can lead to aggression. The individual has created fight or flight responses to negative affect - FIGHT responses trigger anger and aggression, FLIGHT responses tend to trigger fear and avoidance. Excitation Transfer … aggression as an interpretation of stimulus (ex. Cognitive Distortion and Misattribution). Social Cognitive … similar to ET, emphasize differences in social info processing. Cognitive schema: guide decision to act aggressive, “Script”: tendency to develop knowledge structures by interpretation - a set of behaviors & beliefs that are automatically triggered by situation (how I am supposed to act in this situation) - learned via experience and modeling. Social Learning … modeling and conditioning by positive reward (ex. Media violence) *NOT a universal concept* Social Interactions
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course PSYCHOLOGY UD taught by Professor Brewer during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.