Domestic**Spousal** Stats: ¼ women in US experience dv in life-time (20-24yrs @ greatest). 389,100 women and 78,180 men were victimized by an intimate partner (9% of all violent crime). 73% of family violence victims are females: 84% spousal abuse, 86% by boyfriends. Every 9 seconds in the US a woman is assaulted or beaten, every day 3 women+ and one man are murdered by an intimate partner, 30% of female homicides in the U.S. are intimate partner related. 16% of American married couples are violent. Around the world, 1/3 women has been a victim of domestic violence. 1/5 teens report violence or threats in relationship. 50% never contact police or a shelter. 85% of reported victims are women, women of all races are equally affected, SES is not a factor unless very low income (3 times more likely), 75% know someone who is a victim. Use of shelter reduces 60-70% re-occurrence for a following year. 50% of wife abusers also abuse kids. 10% of batters are pan-violence offenders. Characteristicsof abusive men: low self-esteem, feelings of powerlessness in life, pathological jealousy , antisocial personality disorder, exposure to family violence as a child, poor overall coping skills. Victim: helpless, low-self esteem, high stress, low coping skills. Types of batters: Family only (50% or more of all male batters), Dysphoris/borderline (violence rooted in psychiatric disorders: many female batters fall here), generally violent/anti-social (tend to have criminal history). Theories: Macro-Level(Societal): cultural values may condone domestic violence, external stressors and various other social conditions may exist which allow domestic violence to be tolerated. Micro-Level(Family Unit): intra-familial stress and poor communication, modeling, social-exchange theory (cost/benefit analysis). Individual Level: domestic violence as a learned behavior, Psychopathology of the abuser, Unrealistic expectations and resulting frustrations, how the individual percieves him or herself and their power within the family unit, impulse control disorders, lack of adequate communication skills and anger management/conflict resolution skills, Substance abuse. Facts: animal abuse rights by 1866, child rights by 1874. **Child** Facts: Neglected children tend to be more withdrawn and isolative, while abused children are more aggressive. “Cycle of abuse”- abused kids more likely to abuse their own kids when grown up. Middle childhood is the most likely time that sexual abuse will be inflicted on a child. Boys are higher risk of being abused. 40% abusers abuse drugs. 76% abused kids, 40% physically punished kids, 15% non-punished kids were violent toward their siblings (Bryan).97% young delinquents reported parental abuse (Welsh). Physical
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