Ch.5: Development factors and social learning
Violence does not simply appear in previously healthy adults
Temperament… individual’s habitual emotional responses, probably congenital and hereditary.
Personality of temperament include: impulsivity, adaptability, distractibility etc
Temperament also relates to negative emotions such as anxiety and depression
Conduct Disorder… persistently violates other’s rights, cannot act on their age. Secretion level of
androgens (prenatal), too much serotonin?
ADHD… impulsive, overreacting behaviors, distractibility, and aggression. More biologically
based than conduct disorder. Treatments: methylpheniclate (Ritalin), which is a stimulant.
Learning disorders… coined the term about 100 years ago; having normal information
processing skills but lacking performance ability (at least 2 years behind). It affects child’s self-
esteem. Research show that repeated violent criminals have the highest rate of learning
Socialization vs. Internalization… socialization occurs at early stages of life when toddlers learn
rules; later they internalize it and believe they are correct (internalization).
Social competence… ability to play in a friendly manner with others, which allow them to learn
that aggression, is bad.
*During preschool years, the capacity for both aggression and pro-social behaviors increase
attachment (emotional bond) to caregivers become important.
During middle childhood (school ages), instrumental aggression decreases (ex. Hurt friends for
getting a toy), but hostile aggression increases (ex. Verbal). Boys in this stage emphasizes the
feeling of inclusion in a group, girls emphasizes intimacy.
Social Learning perspectives: interested in overt behaviors. Resilience is referring to kids witness
violence acts but do not become violent themselves. Modeling and Reward/Punishment
principles (operant conditioning). In a case of sexual assault, the reward is not to obtain sexual
desire, but to have the feeling of having intense power over the victim
Ch.6: Media Violence
In general, males are more vulnerable than females; younger kids are more vulnerable than older
kids to be aggressive after playing violent games.
Statistics: Average 3-4 year olds watch 2 hours TV, older kids watch 40 hours + per week, see
3000 violent acts on TV per year, only 20-30% of prime time shows are non-violent
Trigger mechanism… trigger violent behavior from individuals who are already aggressive to
begin with. TV’s are may be the final straw (not necessary the most important factor).
***CARTOON VIOLENCE= greatest acting out for kids nowadays.***
Ch.9: Youth Violence
Arrest for under 15 has been decreasing since 1994 (dramatic increase between 88 and 94)
School shooting typically happen in rural and suburban, middle-class kids
Court cases of juvenile offenders, 40% are under 15
Anti-social behavior during adolescent is the key to distinguish adult offenders and younger