PALec4 - Modern Genetics: The Mechanics of Heredity Lecture...

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Modern Genetics: The Mechanics of Heredity Lecture 4
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Wilhelm Johannsen (1857- 1927) Danish Biologist. First coined the term “gene.” Comes from the term “generation.” For Johannsen and other biologists of his era the gene was a theoretical concept .
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Definition of a Gene The unit of biological inheritance. The “blueprint” of the phenotype.
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The Cell A cell is a microscopic entity in which genetic material and others structures are separated from the environment by a semipermeable membrane .
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Types of Cells Prokaryotes - Single-celled organism without a nucleus . Examples: bacteria, blue-green algae, and lichens Eukaryotes - Cells where genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell with a structure known as a nucleus . Most forms of life on earth are eukaryote based .
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Prokaryote: Bacteria
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Prokaryote: Blue-Green Algae
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Prokaryote: Lichen
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Basic Features of All Cells Plasma Membrane - Semipermeable and regulates the the transport of material in and out of a cell. It also governs activity and communication with other cells. Cytoplasm - Fluid that fills the main body of the cell (mostly water). Organelle s - Structures in the cytoplasm that help to maintain the cell and carry out its life functions.
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Prokaryote Structure
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Eukaryote Cell
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Complex Organisms Complex organisms (those made up of multiple cells) feature two basic types of cells: Gametes - Cells that are directly involved in reproduction (a.k.a. Sex Cells) Somatic Cells - Cells in the body that are not Gametes.
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Stem Cells Somatic cells in embryos (and to less lesser extent mature organisms) that eventually develop into other types of cells (brain, liver, bone, skin etc.)
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Somatic Cell Anatomy Nucleus - Most prominent feature of the cell. Contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is the genetic material that governs heredity. It also contain RNA (ribonucleic acid). Mitochondria - Capsule-shaped organelles where metabolic reactions take place resulting in the production of energy-rich molecule (ATP - adenosine triphosphate) that fuels the cell.
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They have their own DNA that is not contained in the nucleus and is different from the the DNA found in the cell’s nucleus.
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PALec4 - Modern Genetics: The Mechanics of Heredity Lecture...

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