Chapter 3 Socialization - Socialization Socialization the...

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Unformatted text preview: Socialization Socialization the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential. Social experience is also the foundation for the personality/identity Nature Vs. Nurture individual behavior Nature: Biology and Genetics Nurture: Sociology and Social Environment Nature Vs. Nurture Charles Darwin's study of evolution led to the "nature" argument. Traits that enhance survival emerge as a species "nature." John Watson developed a theory called behaviorism. Behavior is not instinctive, but learned. Social scientists are cautious about describing behavior as instinctive. Nature Vs. Nurture Which is it??? Answer: Social Isolation Harlow Experiment Social Isolation Harlow Experiment Harry and Margaret Harlow discovered that infant monkeys left in isolation suffered emotional and behavioral damage. After these critical periods, no amount of exposure to mothers or peers could alter the monkeys' abnormal behaviors and make up for the emotional damage that had already occurred. Isolation Feral Children Feral children: Children raised in extreme isolation. Children need nurture in early childhood Three children, Anna, Isabelle, and Genie were left in isolation and suffered emotional damage. Feral Children Genie Known as a modern day wild child. Locked up from 20 months until age 13. Little to no contact with others Suffered permanent disabilities Video Genie: A Modern Day Wild Child Understanding Socialization Sigmund Freud's Elements of Personality Sigmund Freud believed that biology plays a major role in human development. Humans have 2 basic drives or needs: Life Instinct (or bonding) Death Instinct (or aggressiveness) They operate on an unconscious level. Freud's Personality Model 3 basic components: Id: Basic needs and pleasure-seeking drive Superego: operation of culture within the individual Ego: the balance between id and superego--the conscious. (Culture, in the form of the superego, represses selfish demands.) Importance of Freud Notion that we internalize norms Childhood experiences have lasting effect. Criticisms: That identity is only composed of three parts Claim that personality develops very early in life and then remains fixed or stable over time. Understanding Socialization Jean Piaget Cognition: How people think and understand. Piaget's Stages of Development: Sensorimotor Stage: Sensory contact understanding Preoperational Stage: Use of language and other symbols Concrete Operational Stage: Perception of casual conceptions in surroundings Formal Operational Stage: Abstract critical thinking Understanding Socialization George Herbert Mead Mead believed social behaviorism explains how social experience creates personality. Mead's central concept is the self the part of the individual's personality composed of selfawareness and self-image. The self only develops with social experience. Mead's Stages of the Socially Created Self Imitation: Child mimics others and don't have a self. Play: Role playing; learn to use language and symbols Game: Ability to take on many roles; internalizes values or larger society Figure 3-1 (p. 67) Building on Social Experience Understanding Socialization Carol Gilligan Gilligan compared the moral development of girls and boys. The two sexes use different standards of rightness. Gilligan's Gender Research Boys Evaluate the events based on laws, justice and rules They are known to have an ethic of rights Girls View events in terms of care, social relationships, and interactions. They are known to have an ethic of care Understanding Socialization Charles Horton Cooley Cooley used the term the Looking-Glass Self a selfimage based on how we think others see us. Looking Glass Self --We imagine our appearance to others --We imagine others judgment of our appearance --We have a self-feeling about that judgment. Your identity is indeed: _______________________ _______________________ ________________________ Take more notes! Agents of Socialization Family The family has the greatest impact on socialization. Center of a child's life Environment Social position Race, Class, Religion Cultural Capital Children follow in parents footsteps. Beliefs, manners, ideas on gender, politics Sayings: _________________________ Agents of Socialization School Function of School: To teach skills and information. Hidden Curriculum: Informal Covert Lessons -High Class Values: competition, achievement and success -Lower Class Values: working hard, obedience to authority Agents of Socialization Peer Groups Peer groups social groups whose members have interests, social positions, and ages in common Child is able to develop a sense of self away from the family Peers have influence over short-term goals while parents (family) maintain longterm goals. Agents of Socialization Mass Media Mass media impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience. Television is the most influential mass media. More television leads to acceptance of gender stereotypes and desensitization to violence. Kubler-Ross 5 Stages Five Stages that terminally ill people go through 1. Denial or non-acceptance 2. Anger upset with diagnosis 3. Bargain--try to make a deal with God or anyone 4. Depression--emotionally upset 5. Acceptance--realization that death is near 5 Stages of Death and Dying Example One 5 Stages of Death and Dying Example Two Resocialization Personality is altered through control of the environment. Mentally and emotionally re-training Resocialization Resocialization radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment. 2 steps: Erode the individuals "old self" Systematically rebuild a "new self" Total Institutions a setting in which people are: isolated from the rest of society manipulated by an administrative staff. Characteristics: Supervision of all spheres of a persons life Standardized system Formal rules and daily schedules Total Institution Examples Total Institution ...
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