lecture 17 post cold war world

lecture 17 post cold war world - A “New World Order”?...

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Unformatted text preview: A “New World Order”? “New The End of the Cold War, Globalization, The and Geopolitics, 1970-present and Globalization Globalization • With the collapse of the socialist world around 1990, the three world order that began after the end of WW2 also came to an end. order • A new globally integrated world order has emerged organized into a unified marketplace with virtually unhindered flows of capital, commerce, culture, labor, and information across most national borders. • New political formations such as the EU, and new economic powerhouses such as China, as well as increased South-South alliances, have challenged the economic and political hegemony of the United States. States. • Yet, at the same time, increased urbanization, overpopulation, diminished food supplies, environmental degradation and global warming, the AIDS pandemic, and greater divergence between the wealthy North and the poor South, has struck developing and underdeveloped nations at crisis levels unmatched since the end of colonial empires. • The roots of these current crises go back to the 1970s economic crises which were the conditions of the end of the state communism and the seeds of the new global order. Economic Crises of the 1970s Economic • Despite the Cold War, the superpowers’ grip on economics and politics diminished in the 1970s. diminished • The 6 Common Market countries in Europe (Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg) had surpassed the US in GDP. By 1973, the CM exported 3 times as much as the US. 1973, • In 1971 the Bretton Woods currency system collapsed. The US went off of the Gold Standard because of budget and trade deficits. the • The US faced further challenges from expanding Japanese economy and OPEC nations that controlled the supply and price of oil. OPEC “Stagflation” • The OPEC oil embargo of the 1970s marked the first time since Europeans colonized the globe that the producers of raw materials controlled economic flows to their own benefits. flows • Very high interest rates in the US led to slowdowns in industrial development and consumer spending. development • Stagflation: high prices + unemployment + high interest rates; an unusual Stagflation high combination. combination. • The result was sobering for Americans: energy resources and economic growth had their limits. growth OPEC Collapse of the Soviet Bloc Collapse • The most significant event of the end of the 20th century was the collapse of the Soviet Empire and the end of the Cold War. War. • Dissent against Soviet rule had been around since at least the Hungarian uprising in 1956. uprising • In 1980, Polish workers reacted against food price increases by going on strike and creating an independent labor movement called Solidarity. movement • The movement embraced many including members of the Polish Communist Party and the Catholic Church. Church. • Solidarity insisted that the government recognize it as a legitimate organization. recognize • The Communist Party nearly collapsed from the protests until the Soviet government intervened and outlawed Solidarity. Solidarity. Collapse of the Soviet Bloc Collapse • The Soviets put in a new military government. The • The Polish situation highlighted the economic problems facing the Soviet Bloc since the 1960s: stagnant economies, negative growth, deteriorating standards of living. Most Eastern Bloc residents had to wait in long lines to receive basic items, often receiving nothing. basic • Vodka, however, was readily available. Alcoholism skyrocketed in the Soviet Bloc. Alcoholism • Fertility levels fell. Fertility • The USSR was forced to import masses of amounts of grain from the US. amounts • As its people were suffering, the USSR spent massively on maintaining an arms race with the US. US. • In 1985 a new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, took over the USSR. He quickly proposed several solutions to the Soviet economic and political woes. woes. Collapse of the Soviet Bloc Collapse • Peristroika: a restructuring of the Soviet Peristroika restructuring economy, including increased productivity, capital investment, new technologies, and mild market reforms. mild • Glasnost: “openness” to the nonGlasnost communist world. It allowed for new forms communist of free speech, free circulation of information. This became very important after the Chernobyl tragedy. after • Dissent and debate was beginning to be tolerated. tolerated. • Although, Gorbachev wanted to implement reforms in nearly every aspect of the Soviet system, he still believed in communism. communism. • In 1987, one of his allies, Boris Yeltsin resigned the government out of protest against Gorbachev’s reforms as ineffective. ineffective. Tiananmen Square, 1989 Tiananmen • Inspired by a visit Gorbachev made to China, thousands of students massed in Beijing’s largest square to demand democracy in China. in • They communicated with the outside world using email to get their messages to the West, and using video and photographs to promote their cause. to • As Chinese workers began to join them, the hard line Chinese government cracked down on the protests as the world watched. cracked • Thousands were arrested and sent to prison, some facing death. Thousands • Despite the setback in China, the spirit of the revolt carried its way back to Europe. Europe. Poland and Czechoslovakia, 1989 Poland • Tiananmen Square ignited a chain of events that would resonate across the globe. globe. • In June 1989, without Soviet backing, the ineffective Polish government held free parliamentary elections. Solidarity candidates drove out the communists and by 1990, Lech Walesa was elected president, signaling Poland’s lean towards democratic and market reforms. Gorbachev’s USSR declared that it would not intervene as it had in Warsaw in 1981, in Prague in 1968, and in Hungary in 1956. • In November 1989, Alexander Dubcek, the leader of Prague Spring in 1968, Vaclav Havel, Vaclav called for the ouster of Stalinists from the playwright, leader of Czech government. Czech the Velvet Revolution in Prague, and future • The communists resigned in what came president of the Czech to be called the “Velvet Revolution” Republic Republic because it lacked bloodshed. because East Germany and Romania, 1989 East • East Germans had attempted to escape over the Berlin Wall since the 1960s, often being gunned down. Berlin • On November 9, an ambiguous statement by the East German government encouraged guards to allow East Berliners to cross into the Western half of the city. Berliners • The government of West Germany offered the East Berliners each the equivalent of $100 to spend in the city. city. • Berliners then released years of anxiety by assaulting the wall with sledgehammers. By 1990 the Berlin Wall was gone. • In Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu was the hardest dictator in the Soviet Bloc since Stalin. • In December 1989, an opposition movement erupted in violence, the most violent of the 1989 revolutions with over 1000 dead. over • After gaining military support, On Christmas Day, protesters tried Ceausescu and his wife Elena in a hastily-formed show trial and then immediately executed them on live television. them German Reunification, 1990 • The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe helped pave the way for the unification of Germany which had been divided since the end of WW2. which • West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl promoted and created a new Germany in October 1990. and • The initial celebration came to quick end, however, as East Germany acted like a weight on West Germany. East Germans, who lived near poverty but had jobs under communism, lost their jobs in economic downsizing. • Unemployment increased, social services evaporated, social tensions increased and violent attacks against immigrants were on the rise as neoattacks Nazi movements gained in numbers. • Throughout the former Soviet Bloc the transition to democracy and free markets was anything but smooth. Many suffered in the transformation, but nowhere was the transition more disastrous than in Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia, 1990-2000 • The USSR and Yugoslavia held together large numbers of ethnic groups under their communist reigns. In the wake of the collapse of communism in both countries, ethnic and religious tensions going back hundreds of years flared up. flared • In 1990, the Serb communist Slobodan Milosevic became president of the new Republic of Yugoslavia. Republic • In 1991, Slovenia and Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia, but the Croats lost 1/4 of their territory to the Serb dominated Yugoslav army. territory • Civil war ravaged Bosnia-Herzegovina where a Muslim majority tried to create a multiethnic state. state. • Bosnian Serb men, supported by Milosevic gained power. gained • Bosnian Muslims could not arm themselves to resist the Bosnian Serbs because of a UN embargo. embargo. Yugoslavia, 1990-2000 • As Yugoslav provinces broke away from Serbia, Milosevic pursued a policy of ethnic cleansing against non-Serbs. non-Serbs. • Soldiers in Serbian militias raped women leaving them pregnant with Serbian babies; men and boys were killed; libraries and museums were destroyed; Mostar Bridge was destroyed in 1993. Bridge • Under Clinton, peace between Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia was established in 1997 at Dayton, Ohio. Serbia • In the late 1990s, Serb forces attacked ethnic Albanians in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo. This time NATO intervened and bombed Serbian forces. UN peacekeepers kept the peace. peacekeepers • In 2001, Milosevic was captured and was placed on trial for war crimes at the World Court in the Hague. He died while standing trial in 2006. while Mostar Bridge, built Mostar by the Ottoman Empire in 1566; destroyed in 1993 destroyed • In 1990 Peristroika had failed to improve the Soviet economy. • Russian Parliament elected Boris Yeltsin as the president of the Russian Republic over a communist candidate, and this sparked a coup in 1991 by communist hard-liners. • While Gorbachev was held inside the parliament building in Moscow, Yeltsin stood atop a tank and called for mass resistance. resistance. • Hundreds of thousands filled the streets, soldiers defected to protect Yeltsin. Yeltsin. • The coup failed as Russians refused to return to Stalinist policies of the past 70 years. The USSR failed to exist. 70 • Life continued to deteriorate, however, as unemployment, organized crime, and ethnic and religious battles continued in the breakaway republic of Chechnya. the USSR, 1991 Global Challenges Global • The 1970s brought on a heightened awareness of challenges and limits facing First World nations. challenges • In the 19th century, industrialization and population growth were indicators of the progress of civilization. By the 1970s, these were now showing their negative effects on natural ecology and global environmental health. on • Nuclear energy was a by-product of the nuclear arms race between the US and the USSR. Since the 1950s, nuclear reactors appeared throughout the US, Western Europe and the Soviet Bloc. Initially offering a “clean” alternative to carbon-based fossil fuels, the dangers of nuclear energy became real during the Three Mile Island meltdown in Pennsylvania in 1979 and the Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine in 1986. Ukraine Nuclear Disasters Nuclear • In March 1979, one of the reactors of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station suffered a partial core meltdown. The meltdown was contained within 5 days and no one was killed or injured. But, disaster brought to the public’s awareness the real threat such energy sources pose. real • In the USSR in 1986, residents in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station were not so lucky. One core reactor exploded the roof off its building sending radioactive dust into the atmosphere. Many Ukranians and Russians died in the accident. Cancer levels rose in the 1990s. Today the region near Chernobyl is still uninhabitable. Environmental Pollution Environmental • Emissions produced environmental damage such as acid rain, first discovered in the 1970s. in • Clear-cutting tropical rainforests for cattle grazing land and cash crops has threatened the survival of these forests, essential to biological diversity and global oxygen production. global • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals used in aerosols and refrigerants, had eaten away at the earth’s ozone layer, a blanket of gases surrounding the earth which protects the planet from harmful ultraviolet rays. which • Emissions and pollutants were adding gases to the atmosphere, creating a layer which traps heat in much the same way a greenhouse does. The greenhouse effect has produced a phenomenon called global warming. The global The small increase in the overall temperature of the earth produces large scale consequences such as the warming of the oceans, melting of ice caps and glaciers, rising of seal levels, disruption of weather patterns, alterations of global currents. The effects these have on the environment could be permanent and disastrous. • In the 1980s and the 1990s governments have addressed some of the causes and implemented solutions such as lower carbon monoxide emissions and reductions in greenhouse gases. reductions • In 2005, the UN Kyoto Protocol was put in place in an effort by 187 countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower overall global temperatures. to Kyoto Protocol Kyoto North vs. South North • Since WW2, nations in the developing world have struggled with increasing population. increasing • The least industrialized countries in the world experienced 98% of all population growth. of • By 1999, the world population had reached 6 billion people and it will double that by 2045. will • In non-industrialized countries life expectancy increased by 16 years between 1950 and 1980. years • Fertility rates dropped in the West due to increased forms of birth control. control. • Migration of large numbers of people to urban areas of nations not able to provide services only exacerbated the population growth problem by adding the specter of poverty. growth • Despite increased healthcare and dissemination of western medicine, most of the increased population lives in the poorer southern hemisphere, while the wealthier populations live in the northern hemisphere. northern North vs. South Division North • During the 1980s and 1990s, world leaders began to address the growing divide between earth’s northern and southern hemispheres. divide • Southern peoples suffered lower standards of living, greater health problems, greater illiteracy, and could not rely on their post-WW2 governments for support such as welfare, healthcare and education. such World Population Increases, 1950-1997 World AIDS AIDS • Contagious disease also reflects the inequalities of a globalized world. • Microbes know no national, religious, or linguistic borders. Microbes • Diseases which afflicted populations in the 19th century such as cholera and malaria are largely under control thanks to vaccination programs, better healthcare, and better sanitation. healthcare, • New diseases have emerged in pandemic form since the 1970s such as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which is transmitted through contact with semen or blood of an infected person, through sexual contact, contaminated blood transfusion, or intravenous drug use through shared needles. transfusion, • Initially stigmatized as a homosexual disease, the virus has spread to the heterosexual population, and has hit the poorer populations of the world the hardest. hardest. • In its first two decades 12 million people have died of AIDS, 2.6 million in 1999 alone. By 2000, 33 million had acquired the HIV virus. New drugs which prolong the effects of the HIV virus have not been available to underdeveloped regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. Increased deaths and transmissions of the disease have occurred more rapidly in Africa than elsewhere. the • Education is the key to stopping the disease. A Tanzanian survey showed that 20% of women with 4-5 years of education demanded that their sexual partners wear condoms. Only 6% of women with no education demanded it. partners Global AIDS Rates Global Genocide in Africa Genocide • The most gruesome political violence in the global age has occurred in Africa, where nation-states have been weakest in upholding laws. upholding • African agriculture has been unable sustain the growing populations and conflicts over unequal access to important resources like education have only exacerbated ethnic tensions. exacerbated • Drought, famine, and corruption have led to riots, violence, and genocide as in Rwanda in 1994. Rwanda • The Hutus and the Tutsis had lived side by side for generations, often intermarrying. by • In 1994 they began to slaughter one another. The UN sent in peacekeeping forces, but US president Clinton blocked a UN Security Council resolution. Most UN forces were removed. forces • Hutu militias took this as a green light to slaughter. In 100 days, 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were massacred while the world did nothing. while • In July 2003 in the Darfur region of western Sudan, a conflict erupted between the Janjaweed, a loosely formed militia of Muslims, and land-tilling tribes in the region. • Some estimates of the death toll are as high as 450,000 civilians, including women and children. women • Although the US has called the conflict a genocide, the UN has been reluctant to do so. The Sudanese government denies that it is a genocide and has considered the UN peacekeeping force an invasion comparable to the US invasion of Iraq. • Both crises in Rwanda and Darfur have produced mass exodus of refugees into neighboring states. neighboring Genocide in Africa Genocide Terrorism as a Political Tool Terrorism • In the 1960s and 1970s some political groups turned violent in response to the increase in conservative governments, economic slowdown and the ineffectiveness of legal means for social and political change. and • These groups used terror as a weapon in their fight for national and political rights: kidnapping, bombing, bank robbery, assassination. robbery, • They often recruited disaffected youth to join their ranks. to • Black Panther Party in the US Black • Red Army Fraction and Baader-Meinhof gang in West Germany gang • PLO in Israel/Palestine PLO • IRA in Northern Ireland IRA • Basque Separatists in northern Spain Basque • Red Brigades in Italy Red Islam Confronts the West: Iran Islam • In the 1970s as Western dominance was deteriorating, US President Jimmy Carter faced an insurmountable crisis when a religious revolution brought to power Ayatollah Khomeini, a fundamentalist Muslim leader in Iran. leader • Khomeini had been in exile in Paris where he orchestrated the Shi’ite Muslims of Iran to abandon all Western culture, and demanded a return to a traditional Islamic society. return • The pro-US Shah was ousted and Khomeini returned to Tehran. returned • In November 1979, supporters of Khomeini stormed the US embassy in Tehran and held American hostages for over a year, until the newly elected US president Ronald Reagan negotiated their release. negotiated • US paralysis in the face of Islamic militancy galvanized rejections of Western influence in the Middle East. the Iraq and Saddam Hussein Iraq • Not all Islamic countries were always united against the West. • In September 1980, Iraq’s president Saddam Hussein launched an attack on neighboring Iran, fearing that the Shi’ite revolution in Iran might spark a similar conflict in Sunni Iraq. similar • He also wanted Iranian oil He • For 8 years Iran and Iraq were at war, the US supporting Iraq and the USSR supporting Iran. But the war ended in a stalemate. Iraq suffered heavy debt because of the war and Saddam Hussein needed more oil to boost the Iraqi economy. needed • He invaded Kuwait in 1990 as a solution to Iraq’s troubles. But a UN coalition was formed by US president George H.W. Bush and they drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait. Iraqi • No-fly zones were placed over southern and northern Iraq and US forces remained in Kuwait Saddam Hussein and US Saddam and Saudi Arabia throughout the 1990s until the Ambassador Donald Rumsfeld Ambassador invasion of Iraq by US forces in 2003. invasion USSR Invasion of Afghanistan USSR • The USSR supported a coup by a communist faction against Afghanistan’s government in 1979. faction • Afghanis put up much resistance to the communists. But by 1980, thousands of Soviet troops were fighting inside Afghanistan. troops • The CIA fearing that Afghanistan would fall into the Soviet sphere, mobilized support and trained local Afghanis to fight the Red Army. local • One of the leaders of the resistance movement was a wealthy Saudi national named Osama bin Laden. He was trained by the CIA. Laden. • With the USSR’s troubles mounting in the late 1980s, the Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan in 1989. 1989. • Afghanistan remained contested until the late 1990s when the Taliban Party, a group of Islamic fundamentalists imposed a strict and ruthless regime. regime. Al Qaeda Against the West Al • In the 1990s Osama bin Laden promoted a panIn Arab or pan-Islamic world that increasingly gained Arab support for its rejections of Western culture and influence. influence. • bin Laden advocated a holy war against the West, specifically against the US for maintaining its military presence on the Arabian peninsula, and for its support of Israelis against the Palestinians. its • Using his own mass wealth, bin Laden created a global terrorist network, called al Qaeda, that trained in Taliban-ruled Afghanistan, and claimed responsibility for the World Trade Center bombing in 1993, the bombings of US embassies in Africa in 1998, the attack on the USS Cole in 2000. 1998, • The most spectacular attack against the West occurred on September 11, 2001 when 4 US commercial jets were hijacked by Saudi members of al Qaeda and 3 were flown into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, killing nearly 4000. Center • In response, George W. Bush declared a “war on terror” and invaded Afghanistan and Iraq. terror” Neoliberalism Neoliberalism • Neoliberalism refers to a political and economic philosophy that first appeared in the 1970s. • It de-emphasized or rejected government intervention in the domestic economy. It focused on free-market methods, fewer restrictions on business operations, and property rights. In foreign policy, neoliberalism favored the opening of foreign markets by political means, using diplomacy, economic pressure and, for some neoliberals, military might. • In the 1980s British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and US President Ronald Reagan both implemented domestic policies that encouraged private enterprise as the solution to sluggish economies. • In addition they called for an overhaul of the outdated welfare state, reductions in domestic spending on social services, and tax cuts for big business and the wealthy. Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan Neoliberalism and Supply-Side Economics Neoliberalism • Neoliberalism emphasized supply-side economics associated with the economist Milton Friedman. • Supply-side economists argue that tax cuts for big business allows for greater investment, and increased wealth means expanding economies. They also emphasize keeping wages low and increasing sales tax. • As business profits increase wealth “trickles down” into the poorer levels of society, bringing them up also. • Critics of supply-side claim that as wages stagnate, the overall standard of living of the poor increases much more slowly than the rate of economic growth, and that the middle classes merge with the poorer classes. • By the mid 1990s, however, even US Democrats such as Bill Clinton subscribed to neoliberal policies, and ended the welfare state. Milton Friedman Bill Clinton IMF and “Structural Adjustment” IMF • The IMF and the World Bank, both created in 1944, provided loans to developing countries if they agreed to implement Structural Adjustment Programs. These programs are Adjustment These conditions for receiving loans and they include: conditions – Cutting social expenditures, also known as austerity austerity – Trade liberalization, or lifting import and export restrictions export – Increasing foreign direct investment Increasing – Balancing budgets and not overspending Balancing – Removing price controls and state subsidies subsidies – Privatization of industry Privatization – Enhancing the rights of foreign investors through national laws through – Improving governance and fighting corruption. corruption. Criticisms of Structural Adjustment Criticisms • Although the Structural Adjustment Programs were designed to increase the strength of local third world economies since the 1950s, these SAPs did not always produce desired results and often produced serious consequences for those states accepting aid. serious – undermining national sovereignty by dictating national economic policies policies – encouragement of privatization and opening of markets to the West (i.e., the US) West – much of the SAPs focus on increased use of pesticides and fertilizers without regard to the environment fertilizers – agricultural trade has produced increased urbanization into global southern cities, also mass migration of immigrants to the North. southern – SAPs demand austerity of local governments, cutting of social spending on healthcare and education. spending – SAPs produce global inequality between the north and south by forcing the poorer southern nations into further debt that they owe to the developed world. the Urbanization and the Creation of Slums Urbanization • SAPs have had a detrimental effect on the poorer nations and their growing populations. nations • Over 50% of the world’s populations now live in urban areas, most of which do not have the resources to care for these expanding populations. resources • In addition, unlike the 19th century slums in Manchester and Dublin which were largely accompanied by an increase of secularization, Mike Davis in his article on slums points that these new global slums are fertile ground for fundamentalist forms of religions such as Islam and Pentecostal Christianity. Christianity. The Post-Cold War World The • After the Cold War, intellectuals tried to assess the state and meaning of the world at that time. • Francis Fukuyama claimed that humanity had reached the “end of history,” that all of the ideological struggles of the past have come to an end and that democracy and capitalism have succeeded in dominating the globe. the • Samuel Huntington offered a different account. He argued that future conflicts would be about a “clash of civilizations,” specifically the irreducibility and incompatibility between the Christian West and the Islamic East. and • Both of these views have failed to take hold. But the success of Western economic policies has some arguing for a new form of imperialism. imperialism. Francis Fukuyama Samuel Huntington World Trade Organization World • In 1995 the WTO was formed to regulate global trade and set standards for trading partners. Its principals: standards • free of discrimination, one country cannot privilege a particular trading partner above others • fewer trade barriers (such as tariffs). fewer • predictability, with foreign companies and governments reassured that trade barriers will not be raised arbitrarily and that markets will remain open. open. • tend toward greater competition. tend • more accommodating for less developed countries, giving them more time to adjust, greater flexibility, and more privileges. time NAFTA NAFTA • In 1994, the North American Free trade Agreement was signed between Canada, the US, and Mexico. Mexico. • The agreement stipulated the lifting of trade barriers between the three North American nations, and the increased flow of goods and services across borders (but not people). not • It also allowed for the protection of intellectual property in these areas, the encouragement of entrepreneurial competition, and the suspension of local laws that hindered the agreement’s implementation. implementation. Clinton signs NAFTA Clinton into law. into The Effects of NAFTA in Mexico The • Transnational corporations, mostly from the US have benefited greatly from NAFTA, usually at the expense of local indigenous populations in Mexico who are no longer protected by local trade unions and labor laws. longer • Local farmers in Mexico have suffered from the import of cheap produce from the US into Mexico and the expansion of factory farms in Mexico that export produce to the US, Canada and other parts of the globe. globe. • Since the inception of NAFTA, overall wages in Mexico have dropped 20%, forcing many younger workers to migrate northward into the US, legally or illegally. illegally. • Cheaper labor in Mexico has also led to layoffs of US workers. workers. Zapatistas in Chiapas Zapatistas • On the same day that NAFTA was signed into law, January 1, 1994, a group of peasant farmers in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas formed the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) named after the Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata earlier in the century. century. • The Zapatistas were determined to fight against the implementation of NAFTA and the loss of their rights to farm local land in Chiapas in favor of the US corporations that were going move in. that • Their “leader” was man calling himself Subcomandante Marcos, and he was suspected to be a professor of philosophy from Mexico City. from Zapatistas in Chiapas Zapatistas • The Zapatistas took advantage of new internet technologies and the media to spread their message across the globe, gaining sympathy from similar groups in Africa and Asia. Asia. • Early in 1994, the armed Zapatistas took control of 5 small towns in Chiapas, they declared war on the Mexican government. Twelve days later a cease fire went into effect. into • Although, the Zapatistas have largely failed to achieve their goal of greater autonomy in the face of NAFTA policies, they have brought to the world’s attention the resistance to First World polices. resistance Zapatistas in Chiapas Zapatistas Top sign: "You are in Zapatista rebel territory. Here the people give the orders and the government obeys." Bottom sign: "North Zone. Council of Good Government. Trafficking in weapons, planting of drugs, drug use, intoxicating beverages, and illegal sales of wood are strictly prohibited. No to the destruction of nature." Federal Highway 307, Chiapas. “The Battle of Seattle” The WTO Conference, Seattle, 1999 WTO • In 1999, the WTO held its annual conference on global trade at Seattle. This particular conference was to promote further trade agreements similar to those like NAFTA. to • The conference was overshadowed by the convergence of over 40,000 antithe globalization protesters from all over the globalization globe, who were determined to put an end to WTO policies and the negative effects they were having on local populations, the environment, and the state of global democracy in the new millennium. millennium. • Labor unions, anarchists, NGOs, environmentalists, feminists, and socialists made up the largest groups of protesters. protesters. “The Battle of Seattle” The WTO Conference, Seattle, 1999 WTO • Although the conference managed to continue, over 4 days of protests and demonstrations led to vandalism, 600 arrests, and use of tear gas and rubber bullets on protestors. on • The next conference the WTO held was in Doha, Qatar, away from western media and antifrom globalization protestors. • Rock groups such as Anti-Flag, Pennywise, and Rage Against the Machine have made references to the 1999 WTO protests or used footage in their videos. footage Venezuela’s “Bolivarian Revolution” Venezuela’s • In 1998, Venezuela elected Hugo Chavez as its new president. Chaves campaigned on the idea that the US is an imperialist power and is single-handedly responsible for the misery of the peoples of Latin America since the Spanish left in the early 19th century. 19th Chavez calls his socialist revolution “Bolivarian” after Simon Bolivar, the 19th century revolutionary who tried to unite South America into a single nation-state. • Chavez was nearly overthrown in a coup by the Venezuelan military supported by the Bush administration. He prevailed however and remains in power, a harsh critic of Bush. critic • In September 2006, speaking before the UN General Assembly, Chavez referred to Bush as “the Devil.” Bush • He was re-elected to a third term in November 2006. November A New Age of Empire? New • Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (2000) Empire • Is the US an empire in the old sense (19th century)? century)? • They say no, that the old forms of imperialism are over. • There is a new Empire without borders and without a center that encompasses the globe and no nation-state is in charge any longer. no • Hardt cites the failures of the Bush wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as the attempt on the part of the US to become an empire, but failing. US • These wars they argue are civil wars and the US civil is acting like a police force. is Conclusions Conclusions Terms Terms • Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) Structural • WTO WTO • Kyoto Prorocol Kyoto • Peristroika Peristroika • Neoliberalism Neoliberalism ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course HISTORY 2 taught by Professor Hill during the Spring '10 term at Irvine Valley College.

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