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lecture 3 empires and encounters NEW

lecture 3 empires and encounters NEW - Empires and...

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Unformatted text preview: Empires and Encounters, Empires and Encounters, 1450­1750 On the Threshold of World History World What made it possible for Europeans to circumnavigate the oceans of the world and initiate the rise of the West to global prominence? Limited land routes and unfavorable balance of trade with Asia. A thirst for knowledge and discovery. Technological innovations in shipbuilding. Chinese gunpowder. The most highly developed military technologies gave the west an advantage that lasted until the end of the twentieth century. Destruction of New World Empires Destruction of New World Empires • The European destruction of the Incan and Aztec civilizations produced major global effects. • Europeans took advantage of natural resources and indigenous populations of the new world. • It supplied Europeans with a market for their own goods that were mostly unwanted in Eurasia. • it provided Europe with a frontier for colonization, exploitation, and imperialism. Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange Europeans brought with them: Technology, weaponry People Animals: cattle, swine, horses Plants: wheat, grapevines, sugarcane The introduction of animals and plants disrupted natural ecosystems. Diseases: smallpox, measles Disease wiped out 90% of the native population. Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange In return the Americas provided: Gold and Silver Potato, tomato, corn, pumpkins, cacao, peanuts, tobacco, squash Syphilis Consequences of the Consequences of the Columbian Exchange Dramatic decline of native population size of Indians— growth of European population in the new world. Indians moved to marginal lands, ceased being city dwellers, become peasants. Native culture and science lost. Construction of the “Indian”, the “Spanish” identities. • Racial mixing: mulattos, mestizos. Crossing the Atlantic Ocean created a truly world economy. European Expansion • In the Americas, Europeans consolidated their hold over larger portions of territory, but new colonial powers entered the fray. • Increasingly, sugar and other agricultural commodities grew in importance • necessitating the importation of more and more African slaves. • The expansive Atlantic slave trade further shaped political developments in Africa below the Saharan desert. European Expansion • The wealth from the Atlantic Ocean system further strengthened certain European nations’ commercial and military strength. • In Asia, increased wealth resulting from rising global commerce undermined several dynasties’ strength, leading to either collapse or severe weakening of power. • Global connections increasingly altered more peoples’ lives around the world and directly contributed to the rise and fall of new and old polities. European Expansion • Transoceanic trade mainly affected mercantile groups. • The deepening of connections across different economic regions increasingly challenged rulers and altered the lives of common people. • Economic integration weakened some rulers while strengthening others. Mercantilism • The lucrative mining ventures in Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World led other European powers to seek similar opportunities in the seventeenth century. • These latecomers did not discover mineral wealth but instead exploited the fertile land to raise cash crops such as sugarcane, tobacco, indigo, and rice, as well as negotiating with Indians to establish a profitable fur trade. • Sugar transformed the European diet. • Public tooth pulling became a popular entertainment • These adventures in the Americas led Europeans to create a new economic philosophy—“mercantilism”. Mercantilism • Mercantilism presumed the world’s wealth was fixed and that one country’s wealth came at another’s expense; a “zero­sum game”. • It assumed that colonies existed to enrich the motherland. • Colonies existed to generate wealth for the motherland and were forbidden to trade with the motherland’s competitors. New Colonies in the Americas Americas New Colonies in the Americas • Holland’s trading colonies. • In the early seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company founded a colony centered on the Hudson River in North America that initiated a thriving fur trade with the Iroquois Indian Confederation. • In 1621, Dutch merchants had formed the Dutch West India Company to promote commerce in the Atlantic Ocean and promote Dutch participation in the slave trade • Although the Dutch never established an elaborate colonial presence in the Americas, they were able to profit from an extensive carrying trade across the Atlantic during the seventeenth century. • The Dutch were often referred to as “universal carriers”. New Colonies in the Americas • France’s fur­trading empire. • French adventurers explored the St. Lawrence River valley and the Great Lakes in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. • In the early seventeenth century, Samuel de Champlain founded the colony of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley. • With relatively few settlers, the French established a thriving fur trade with Native Americans. • This “colonization without conquest” stretched France’s empire deep into North America. New Colonies in the Americas • England’s landed empire. • Unlike the French, England’s colonists established expansive agrarian settlements along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. • Relations with Indians were thus more confrontational. • Protestant dissenters colonized New England. • They fought brutal wars with Indians in the 1630s and 1670s. New Colonies in the Americas • Farther south, the Virginia Company fostered the growth of a tobacco colony in the Chesapeake. • English settlers battled Indians for most of the century. • By 1700, 250,000 European settlers lived in English mainland North American colonies along with 150,000 African slaves; three quarters lived in the Caribbean Islands. New Colonies in the Americas • England’s landed empire. • Unlike the French, England’s colonists established expansive agrarian settlements along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. • Relations with Indians were thus more confrontational. • Protestant dissenters colonized New England. • They fought brutal wars with Indians in the 1630s and 1670s. • Farther south, the Virginia Company fostered the growth of a tobacco colony in the Chesapeake. • English settlers battled Indians for most of the century. • By 1700, 250,000 European settlers lived in English mainland North American colonies along with 150,000 African slaves; three quarters lived in the Caribbean Islands. • With the rise of the West in the 16th century, Africa, the Americas, Russia and Eastern Europe became more closely tied to the increasingly integrated global system. • After the Mongol decline, Russia made a deliberate effort to model itself on the West. • Russia in the early modern period defined itself culturally, socially, and politically for the next several centuries. • Both saw the Roman Empire as the model for expansion. • Both were Christian. • Unlike the West, Russia did not expand with the use of increasing technological innovations. In fact, Russia would lag behind many of the great modern civilizations in technology until the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917. • During the Mongol invasions Moscow was a small trading outpost. • Later, under a series of ambitious princes, the Muscovy principality freed itself from Mongol rule and expanded. • After the Ottoman capture of Constantinople, and end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, Muscovy assumed the role of caretaker of the Eastern Orthodox Church. • Under Ivan’s rule, Muscovy quadrupled in size, beginning a long period of vast expansion. • In the next 4 centuries after 1480, Russia continued to expand at the rate of 50 square miles per day. • Eventually Russia will occupy 1/6 of the earth’s land surface. • He built the Kremlin Palace. • Ivan claimed Moscow to be the “Third Rome” after the fall of Constantinople (the “Second Rome”). • He called himself “Tsar” meaning Caesar. • Ivan established Russian autocracy, or the ability of one person to rule without a hereditary lineage. • The impetus for Russian expansion: • security concerns • vulnerability to invasion such as that of the descendents of the Mongols led to the absorption of territory to the south and east of Moscow. • religious convictions • Ivan III married the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor, solidifying his claim as the inheritor of the Eastern Orthodox Church. • ambitious princes and private individuals • Ivan IV encouraged Russian expansion by private armies into Siberia where they established forts, trading posts, and extracted taxes from aboriginal peoples. • Private entrepreneurs profited heavily from the fur trade expanding Russians boundaries and influence all the way to the Pacific Ocean. • Ivan attacked Russian nobles whom he thought were conspiring against him. For centuries Russian nobles will view the Tsars with suspicion. • He encouraged Russian peasants, or cossacks, to migrate to lands seized from the Mongols in what is today Ukraine. • Following the death of Ivan IV’s son there was no heir to the Russian throne. • This brought about a period called the “Time of the Troubles” in which the Russian regime slipped into chaos and internal feuding. • Many claimed to have the right to the throne. • In 1613 a group of Russian nobles decided that the Romanov family should be the rightful dynasty for succeeding Tsars. • In the seventeenth century the Romanovs created an “absolutist” style of government in Russia, modeled on Louis XIV of France. • To help offset tensions between the Tsars and the Russian nobility, nobles were offered bureaucratic positions in government. • Mikhail Romanov was chosen to be tsar in 1613. The Romanov dynasty lasted until the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. • Mikhail’s father, the Patriarch Philaret of Moscow, acted as joint ruler with Mikhail until the patriarch's death in 1633. • Mikhail restored order to the empire. • Alexis abolished the assemblies of nobles and restored the autocratic power of the Tsar. • He also asserted new authority over the Russian Orthodox Church, purging it of all superstitions that developed during the Mongol occupation. • His reforms angered some Russians who were called “Old Believers” who were then exiled in Siberia. • He also developed contacts with the West, further cultivated by his son Peter. • Russian serfs, or peasants, bore the burden of maintaining the wealth of the Russian nobility. • Most serf families organized into communes in order to deal with the harsh Russian climate and periodic bad harvests. • The communes were organized like extended kin networks providing favors chores and mutual support. • In 1649 Alexis convoked the Assembly of Land (composed of Noble delegates from the Russian provinces) to reorganize Russian society. •Slaves and free peasants were relegated into the serf class. • Serfs were bound the land and to the nobles governing the land. • Russian serfs suffered in much the same way as plantation slaves in the Americas during the same period. • Known for opening his country to the West, Peter I ruled Russia from 1689­ 1725. • The tsar (known as "Peter the Great") was a giant in his time, standing 6 feet 8 inches tall. • He expanded Russia into the West using serf labor. • He established the city of St. Petersburg in 1703. • Peter also reformed the Russian nobility issuing edicts to “Westernize” them: • shave their beards • wear western style clothing • noble women were encouraged to attend cultural events. • he abolished a wedding ritual where the bride’s father handed the groom a whip during the ceremony. • he adopted the Christmas tree from Germany. • These reforms were designed to make Russia appear more favorable to the West. The Islamic World The Safavid Empire • Safavid rule required strong leaders to maintain the territorial unity. Safavid • When no such leader ruled the state foundered. When • After Abbas (the successor to Ismail), a series of weak leaders left the empire in chaos. in • By 1722, it was under assault from inside and outside. By • Afghans invaded from the east and overran the divided armies and besieged Isfahan, the Safavid capital. Isfahan, •The residents of Isfahan died The from hunger and disease during the siege, some even having to resort to eating dead corpses. resort • Finally, the Shah abdicated his rule, and many members of his family and the government were executed. executed. • The empire continued but weakened until 1773 when a revolt finally toppled the ruler. finally Shah Abbas Mughal Empire • The Mughal Empire reached its peak in 17th century, extending their domain over almost all of India. almost • But they faced the problem of dispersed and not always loyal provinces. provinces. • The flourishing of Indian Ocean trade established Mughal wealth, but they never created a great naval power. created • But they amassed great wealth from Europeans wanting Indian products such as textiles. as Mughal Empire • Indian agriculture grew with the introduction of New World crops such as corn and tobacco. such • Mughals were the victims of their own success. their • Local rulers became more wealthy and wanted autonomy. wealthy • Like in the Ottoman, Safavid, Ming empires, Indian peasants took advantage of the breakdown in central authority to assert their independence. independence. • This breakdown also facilitated the British and French to compete over territorial expansion into India. India. The Ottoman Empire The The Ottoman Empire The Decline of the Ottoman Empire • When the territorial expansion of the empire slowed in the seventeenth century, intellectuals in the Ottoman Empire became concerned that the empire was in decline decline • A succession of weak rulers created a sense of crisis sense • The inflow of American silver into Ottoman commercial networks destabilized the empire the Decline of the Ottoman Empire • Merchants increasingly defied commercial regulations and traded commodities such as wheat, copper, and wool to Europeans for silver; this reduced the amount of goods available in the Ottoman Empire. available • This illegal trade did not enrich the imperial coffers, and the government had to resort to deficit spending had • Deficits, shortages, and the inflow of silver sparked inflation of • In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, artisans and peasants revolted in what were called the Celali revolts against the state state • This instability led many regions of the empire to seek more autonomy the Decline of the Ottoman Empire • Egypt, the wealthiest province, achieved virtual autonomy by the seventeenth century autonomy • Financial reforms taken by the Koprulu family, who controlled the office of grand vizier, arrested the financial difficulties in the middle of the the seventeenth century. • In the 1680s the Ottomans once again threatened central Europe threatened • By the end of the seventeenth century, the Ottomans had lost Hungary and talk of decline had begun once again had Ming Trade and the Portuguese • The Ming Dynasty increasingly viewed overseas expansion with suspicion, because they felt that trade with the outside world could lead to instability within China. • In 1557, the Portuguese arrived in Macao, a Chinese port city. • The Portuguese penetrated the expanding Chinese import­export trade in the 16th century. • They became the primary importers of Chinese luxury items to Europe. Trade During the Ming Era China and American Silver • Soon to follow the Portuguese were the Spanish, English and Dutch. • China, however, did not want anything the Europeans had to trade and so restricted the Europeans to Macao. The Ming rulers successfully kept Europeans in the port cities such as Macao, just as the Mughals had done in India. • The introduction of American silver in 1571 changed everything. • China had an unquenchable thirst for the precious metal. • China initially traded with Japan for silver, but after 1571, Manilla became the gateway for American silver into China. • Initially, the Spanish succeeded in gaining wealth from trade with China. • Silver entered China in large quantities and China became the largest repository of silver from the 16th to the 18th centuries. • 1/3 of all the silver mined in the Americas ended up in China. The Flow The Flow of Silver in The World Economy Decline of the Ming Empire • China prospered during the Ming period. • The Ming ruled over 1/3 of the world’s population and this caused some splintering of central control by the 17th century. • Emperor Wanli (r.1573­1620) lived secluded existence inside the Forbidden City, ignoring his bureaucrats who then took advantage of the situation for their own interests. Decline of the Ming Empire • Many traders circumvented Ming laws restricting trade to make large illegal profits. • As silver became the medium of exchange in the Chinese economy, peasants were under great pressure to convert their copper coins to silver. • But the need to acquire silver produced hardships for peasants. Decline of the Ming Empire • High silver supplies meant inflated prices; when silver supplies were low, Chinese peasants had difficulties paying off their debts and taxes. • Peasant rebellions grew in the 16th and 17th centuries. • After 1610, Dutch and English pirating of Spanish ships in the Caribbean slowed the flow of silver from the Americas to China. • Market fluctuations as far away as Mexico affected 16th­ century Chinese economy. • Natural disasters and crop failures added to the woes of the Ming government. • Hunger among the poor was rampant, tales of abandoned babies and cannibalism began to circulate within the government. • Peasants turned into rebels and on April 23, 1644, Beijing fell. Two days later the emperor hanged himself. Ming to Qing China • A Ming military commander named Wu found himself caught between Chinese rebels in the south and Manchus in the north. the • Wu managed to convince the Manchus to fight for him and join him in attacking the rebels in Beijing. Beijing. • They succeeded but the Manchus took control of China and established the Qing period (1644-1911) Qing Qing China, 1644-1911 Qing • The Manchus embarked on economic and territorial expansion. economic • The early Manchu rulers were able and diligent administrators. able • They were tolerant and flexible regarding various ethnic and religious groups in the Chinese empire. empire. • But they exerted their power over the majority of the Han Chinese subjects. subjects. • Manchu impositions mostly fell on Han peasants. Han • Trade and commerce flourished during the Qing period. during Qing China China Languages and Ethnic Groups in China in Qing China • In 1720, a group of Chinese merchants formed a monopolistic guild called Cohong in order to trade with European merchants. Cohong • The Qing allowed Europeans only to trade in the port city of Canton, just as the Ming had done in Macao. as • The “Canton System” became law in 1759. The • Like their Ming predecessors, the Qing were still far more preoccupied with the well being of the Chinese peasantry than with trade with the outside world. outside • As long as the peasants paid their taxes the Qing rulers were content to keep European contact to a minimum. keep • Some historians have called this China’s inability to adapt to a changing world order, and thus left them vulnerable to decline. world • But this is not the case: by the middle of the 18th century, it is clear that Europe needed China more than China needed Europe. • Eventually, New World silver would be replaced by opium as the main European import into China. • For most of the Chinese people, there was no superior model of culture, politics, or economics than their own. politics, • In the 17th century the world become increasingly In interconnected. interconnected. • The Discovery and export of New World silver altered the global economic relationships in the 17th altered and 18th centuries. and • The economic shifts upset political orders across the globe. Some states increased their power while others declined in power. others • European New World colonies demanded an influx of slaves from Africa. of • The Safavid, Mughals, Ming and Ottoman empires experienced challenges to their authority. experienced • mercantilism mercantilism • encomiendas encomiendas • Tenochtitlán Tenochtitlán • Columbian exchange Columbian • Canton System Canton ...
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