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Lecture 4 global commerce - Global Commerce and the Rise of...

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Unformatted text preview: Global Commerce and the Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1450-1750 the Global Commerce • World trade both expanded and became more highly integrated. • An ever-wider amount and type of goods were exchanged across the globe. • None was more important than New World silver, which gave Europeans a commodity that they could exchange for Asian products. • These ever-tightening circuits of trade had diverse effects on different regions and their relations with each other. • Europeans sent ships to Africa to buy slaves, then ship the slaves to their colonies in North and South America and the Caribbean. America • Slave merchants sold slaves to owners of plantations that produced coffee, sugar, cotton, and tobacco. tobacco. • Merchants then purchased raw materials (such as timber, sugar, coffee) to bring back to Europe where they were refined and then sold throughout Europe, Europe’s colonies, and the rest of the world. Europe’s • The economic success of Europe during this period was the direct result of a cheap source of labor: African slaves. labor: • By 1630, Portugal had sent 60,000 African slaves to Brazil to work on sugar plantations; by 1675, most African slaves were sent to Brazil. Brazil. • By 1700, half of African slaves landed in French and British colonies in the Caribbean. French • Between 1730 and 1765, more than half of the population of the British North American colonies were African slaves. • By 1820, 11 million Africans had crossed the Atlantic in chains. Many died en route. Atlantic • The practice of slavery or human bondage The has typically been the result of labor scarcity. has • Slavery is as old as civilization itself. • Slavery and the slave trade existed in Africa Slavery prior to the arrival of Europeans. prior • In the 17th century Arab and Muslim In slavers transported large numbers of Africans across the Sahara or from the Red Sea or East African ports to Muslim cities. cities. • Africans also maintained slaves Africans themselves. • Slavery was not always a permanent Slavery condition; slaves could integrate into local populations and lose their servile status. populations • In the Ottoman Empire, slaves could hold In high social positions. • Most African slaves were Most captured by other Africans through warfare or kidnapping in the interior of Africa. of • The majority of slaves The were between 14 and 35 years old. years • They were sold to They European traders along the 3,500 mile long west coast of Africa. coast • Before their three Before month trip across the Atlantic their heads were shaved, they were stripped naked, and some were branded with red-hot irons. irons. • Men and women were Men separated. separated. • Men were shackled Men together in leg irons. together • Aboard the ships, Africans were crammed into the hulls. were • Women were raped by the sailors and officers, or beaten if they refused their sexual advances. sexual • On the three month trip many slaves fell victim to dysentery, yellow fever, smallpox, measles. smallpox, • Up to 1/4 of the slaves died en route to the Americas, their corpses discarded at sea. sea. • If they survived the trip, If African slaves were sold to plantation owners in Brazil, the Caribbean, or in the North American colonies. North • They were given new They names, forced to learn their master’s language, had no social identity, forced to do any job assigned to them. any • Most slaves worked on Most sugar plantations in the Caribbean. Caribbean. • Slaves worked 15 to 17 hours per Slaves • • • • day. day. They were only fed enough food They to keep them working. to In Brazil runaway slaves fled to In quilombos or hideouts in the quilombos forests and back country, forming their own social organizations. their Other slaves resisted by stealing Other food, breaking tools, feigning illness or stupidity. illness Slave owners constantly felt the Slave threat of slave insurrection and often beat or tortured their slaves in order to put fear into them. in • Slave trade led to gender-ratio imbalances Slave • • • • • in Africa and America. in • Europeans traders preferred males, Europeans and African sellers desired to keep women as domestic workers women Imbalance of gender ratio in New World Imbalance meant little reproduction and a need for continued purchases to increase labor force force Male slaves outnumbered female in the Male New World, but in slave-supplying regions the opposite was true the Female-slave labor plantations developed Female-slave in parts of Africa. in Polygyny reinforced because of gender Polygyny ratio imbalance ratio Dahomean women asserted more power Dahomean and authority because of their numbers. and • In some parts of Africa, the In slave trade wreaked havoc. slave • Feuding to control the Feuding lucrative trade resulted in civil war in the Kongo Kingdom after 1665. Kingdom • Slavers became increasingly Slavers proficient with European firearms and easily captured many slaves from targeted populations. populations. • The slave trade also helped some merchants and The warlords to consolidate and extend political power warlords • Certain mercantile groups in central and West Africa Certain grew wealthier grew • Long-distance trade networks fostered the growth of Long-distance strong state systems strong • The Asante state encompassed 250,000 square The miles in West Africa and displaced local political organizations organizations • The Oyo empire performed a similar feat, linking The commercial networks in tropical rain forests to the savannah areas to the north in West Africa savannah • Both states benefited from access European Both firearms firearms • Although the slave Although trade enriched and empowered some Africans, it cost Africa dearly. dearly. • The Atlantic The commercial system shifted wealth from the countryside to urban areas. urban • Many areas suffered Many severe population loss. loss. Gustavus Vasa (Olaudah Equiano) • Wrote the first slave Wrote autobiography published in 1789 describing his experience from the Gold Coast of Africa to the West Indies to his freedom and life in London. • His account abuses, cruelty, and His violence against African slaves in the West Indies helped the abolitionist cause in the late 18th century. century. European Responses to Slavery • Slavery troubled many back in Europe. • Some theologians, such as John Wesley, Some condemned the practice of slavery as inconsistent with Christian values. Yet, the churches often defended slavery or simply ignored it. defended • At a time when Europe was embracing the values of At constitutionalism and natural rights, they were trafficking in human cargo for huge economic gains. trafficking The End of the Slavery? The • • • • • • • Between 1791 and 1803, the French island colony of San Domingue erupted in a slave revolt that would later be called the Haitian Revolution. Led by a barely literate slave named Tousaint L’Ouverture, the island’s slave fought off the French, Spanish, and English forces until declaring independence in 1803. The Haitian Revolution was the only successful slave revolution in the New World. It was never recognized by the United States out of fear that its own slaves would follow suit. In 1807, the slave trade was abolished by the English. In 1833, the British abolished slavery in their colonies, allowing slaves to become free, but still indentured to their former masters. In 1865, the United States abolished slavery. Slavery continues to this day in some parts of the Slavery world: parents sell their children, young girls become sex slaves. sex Europeans and Asian Commerce • When Europeans first When arrived by sea to Asia, they were eager for resources, especially spices such as pepper, cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon. cinnamon. • Portuguese had Portuguese established a “trading post empire” in the Indian Ocean in order to control the flow of commerce. the • They required traders to They possess passes, and partially blocked the routes throught the Red Sea. Sea. • But they were never able But to fully control trade in the Indian Ocean. the Europeans and Asian Commerce • Spain challenged Portugal’s Spain • • • • • supremacy in the eastern spice trade. spice Spanish established Spanish themselves in the Philipine Islands (named after the Spanish king, Philip II), where they created a large colonial presence. presence. The Philipines were of little The interest to China and Japan. interest The Spanish acquisition was The relatively bloodless. relatively The territory remained under The Spanish control until the Spanish-American War when the United States took control after defeating the Spanish. after Tributes, taxes, conversion to Tributes, Catholicism, revolts. Catholicism, • In the 13th century Japan was a loose collection of domains ruled by powerful local lords called daimyo, who had broad powers daimyo who over peasants and commanded private armies of warriors called samurai. samurai • The daimyo existed alongside a weak central government and an imperial family. central • The Japanese political system resembled feudal Europe about the same time. feudal • The decentralized system was largely due to Japan’s rugged geography; settlements were largely isolated from one another. were • Much of Japanese politics and culture were based on Chinese models. But Chinese centralization was never quite as successful in Japan. in • Many administrative functions fell on the local administrators rather than central authority. authority. • Integration with Asian trade exposed Japan to new external pressures. But the Japanese dealt with these pressures more effectively than the Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal, Ming Empires. Safavid, • Rivalries among the daimyo daimyo did not produce autonomous and fragmented regimes. and • Instead, a single ruling family emerged called the Tokugawa Shogunate. Shogunate. • Japan remained free of foreign exploitation. exploitation. • At the end of the 16th century several military leaders attempted to unify Japan. military • Totyotomi Hideyoshi conquered his rivals with the approval of the Emperor. rivals • After Hideyoshi, one of the daimyos, Tokugawa Ieyasu took power for himself and in 1603 declared himself “shogun” or military ruler. military Totyotomi Hideyoshi Totyotomi (1535-1598) (1535-1598) Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) • Ieyasu moved the center of authority away from Imperial Kyoto to a castle town called Edo (later renamed Tokyo). Edo • Ieyasu had swamps drained, forests cleared, hills leveled, canals dredged, bridges built, and the shoreline extended in order to build his city. order • By the time of Iesyasu’s death in 1616, Edo had a population of 150,000. population • Provinicial villages paid taxes to the daimyos who then paid the central shogunate administration. administration. • In the 17th century, Japanese agriculture thrived with new farming techniques and reclamation projects. projects. • The Japanese population grew from 10 million in 1550 to 16 million in 1600 to 30 million by 1700. in • In foreign affairs, Hideyoshi launched a plan to unsettle China as the main power of East Asia. the • He sent an army to the Korean Peninsula, but had difficulty subduing the Korean people and he also faced troops at the Chinese border. border. • But, a more pressing problem was the arrival of Europeans to Japan. the • By the end of the 16th century, the Portuguese began to arrive in Japan followed by Spanish Franciscans, and the Dutch and English, all setting up trading posts in the south western islands. trading • Japanese officials welcomed trade initially, but they became uneasy with European Christian intolerance of local Japanese beliefs. of • The shoguns issued decrees preventing conversion to Christianity and attempted to ban its practice. to • Japanese Christians rebelled in 1637, but they were crushed by the government and the European missionaries were deported. missionaries • Commercially, the Tokugawa government was concerned that increased trade might pull the various regions of Japan apart from the capital city. the • Eventually, only the Dutch were allowed to trade, confined to a small island near Nagasaki. The Dutch were permitted to unload only one ship per year, and under strict supervision. only • However, trade with Chinese and Koreans flourished. However, • When the Russians arrived in 1697, the Japanese used the northern island of Ezo as a buffer to manage contacts. As the Russians became more aggressive in trade, the Tokugawa annexed Ezo and it became the Japanese island of Hokkaid o, the annexed o, fourth Japanese island. fourth • In regulating contacts with outsiders, Japanese rulers were able to consolidate their power and keep internal upheavals to a minimum. minimum. • The Tokugawa lasted until 1867 when the Meiji came to power. The Conclusion • As Europeans settled the New World they As established colonies in order to extract the rich natural resources available in the Western Hemisphere. Hemisphere. • After having killed most of the indigenous After populations through disease, Europeans began to purchase slaves from Africa and transported them across the Atlantic to work in mineral mines and later plantations. later • During the African Slave Trade 11 million Africans During were transported across the Atlantic Ocean in chains. chains. • Even more suffered the effects of European Even colonialism for the next few centuries. colonialism Terms Terms • Triangular Trade Triangular • Quilombos Quilombos • San Domingue San • Daimyo Daimyo ...
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