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lecture 5 religion - Religion and Science Part I 1450-1750...

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Unformatted text preview: Religion and Science, Part I 1450-1750 1450-1750 Religion and Science Religion • The current debate evolution vs. “intelligent design” has its roots in the early modern period. early • Christianity achieved a global presence for the first time first • the Scientific Revolution fostered a different approach to the world world • there is continuing tension between religion and science in the Western world Western Religion and Science Religion • The early modern period was a time of cultural transformation. time • both Christianity and scientific thought connected distant peoples distant • Scientific Revolution also caused new cultural encounter, between science and religion and • science was a new worldview, almost a new religion for some religion • science became part of the definition of global modernity definition • Europeans were central players, but they did not act alone. but The Globalization of Christianity The • In 1500, Christianity was mostly limited to Europe. In • small communities in Egypt, Ethiopia, southern India, and Central Asia India, • serious divisions within Christianity (Roman Catholic vs. Eastern Orthodox) Catholic • on the defensive against Islam on • loss of the Holy Land by 1300 loss • fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 1453 • Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1529 Ottoman • Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation began in 1517 Protestant • • • Western Europe Western The creation of Atlantic colonies in the The New World, along with growing religious dissent, created further tensions within Europe. tensions Wealth from Spanish holdings in the Wealth Americas shifted the balance of power in Europe to the Habsburg dynasty. in – A lloose confederation of oose principalities known as the Holy Roman Empire was ruled by an emperor who was elected by lesser sovereigns; since 1273 the emperor usually came from the Habsburg family. – Charles V, grandson of Maximilian Charles I, and Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, became Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 Emperor The Protestant Reformation led to The religious wars between Catholic and Protestant states. Protestant Charles V Charles of the HRE of Habsburg Family Holdings Habsburg Holy Roman Empire Holy Popular Forms of Christianity in Western Europe Popular •The aftermath of the plague in the 14th century and the optimism The of the Renaissance in the 15th created the conditions for new forms of religious practice that resisted the Roman Catholic Church. Church. •Many religious leaders tried to reform the Catholic church from Many within the institution. within •In the early 16th century popular religious practices and In anticlericalism (those who opposed church institutions) existed anticlericalism side by side. side •New shrines, reports of miracles, prayer books printed in New vernacular, all increased. vernacular, •The Catholic church rewarded external behavior (good works) The rather than spiritual intention. rather •Priests accepted monetary or even sexual favors in exchange for Priests divine forgiveness. divine •Sale of indulgences: Catholics could buy their salvation. Sale indulgences Catholics Christian Humanism Christian Humanism • Intellectuals who wanted church reform and social reform. and • Combined Renaissance humanism with Christian principles. principles. • Human freedom and Human individualism are compatible with Christian doctrines and practices. and Thomas More (English, 1478­1535) Desiderius Erasmus (Dutch, 1466­1536) Printing Printing • The printing press was invented in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid fifteenth century. mid • Provided a means for independent means of publication and dissemination of ideas. dissemination • The Protestant Reformation could not have gained in popularity with the means of dissemination offered by the new print technologies. technologies. Martin Luther (German, 1483-1546) (German, • A personal crisis led him to break away from personal the Catholic Church, he posted his criticisms, the 95 Theses, on the door of church in Wittenburg in 1517. – He was critical of the sale of indulgences, He and Church hierarchies. and – Faith alone, and not good works, leads to Faith salvation. salvation. – The Bible is the only source of faith. • His ideas spread throughout Holy Roman His Empire igniting popular resistance to Catholic doctrines. doctrines. – His message appealed to merchants and His artisans who resented paying taxes to both lords and to the church. both • German princes who followed Luther were German called Protestants. Protestants Peasants’ War, 1525 Peasants’ • Peasants, workers, artisans Peasants, rebelled, ignited by Lutheran preachers. preachers. • Uprising split the reform Uprising movement in the Church. movement • Protestants plundered Protestants monasteries, refused to pay taxes, called for the abolition of serfdom, demanded village autonomy, and right to appoint their own pastors. their • At the end of 1525, more than At 100,000 rebels had been killed by princes loyal to Charles V. princes • In 1529, Charles V declared the In Roman Catholic faith the true religion of the Holy Roman Empire. Empire. Huldrych Zwingli (Swiss, 1484­1531) Huldrych Zwingli (Swiss, 1484­1531) • Influenced by Luther, promoted reform in Switzerland • unlike Luther, he considered the Eucharist symbolic only • he attacked the Anabaptists and had them sentenced to death • Anabaptism: only adults could understand baptism and therefore should only be baptized as adults John Calvin (French, 1509­1564) John Calvin (French, 1509­1564) • Shared Luther’s and Zwingli’s desire to reform the church • Protestants were forced out of France in the 1530s • Calvin and his followers settled in Geneva. • He argued: if God is almighty and Christians cannot earn their salvation through good works, then no Christian can be certain of salvation. • Predestination: God has already decided between salvation and damnation for everyone, even before the creation of the world. Reshaping Society through Reshaping Society through Religion • Protestant reformers wanted to instill greater discipline in Christian practice and social behavior. • Increased literacy • A new work ethics: hard work was associated with divine providence. • Protestants focused on poor relief. • Bibles were translated into local vernacular languages. • Reformation divided Europe between North and South. • Catholic Church responded to Protestantism by creating the Society of Jesus, also known as Jesuits. Wars between Habsburgs (Austria), Valois (France), and Ottoman Turks • By the late 15th-century, the Ottoman Empire was increasingly a threat to By Eastern Europe, especially to the Austrian Habsburgs. Eastern • Most European countries faced conflicts both internal (peasant uprisings) Most and external (other states). and Spain and France Spain were at war. were Habsburgs fought Habsburgs against the French Valois in the West and against the Ottoman Turks in the east. the Wars between Habsburgs, Valois, and Ottoman Turks • • • • Ottoman Empire reached its Ottoman height under Sultan Suleiman I. height – They sacked Vienna in 1529. Francis I of France formed an Francis alliance with the Turkish Sultan in order to stop Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. Roman Franco-Turkish alliance was Franco-Turkish unusual because it placed political interests over religious ones. ones. But France eventually was But defeated by Charles V who now possessed the most powerful army in Europe, and territories on the Iberian Peninsula, southern Italy, Austria, and the Low Countries. Countries. French Wars of Religion • Between 1540-1560 one third of French nobles Between became Calvinist, or Huguenots. Huguenots • Protestantism began to grow in the South and Protestantism West of France. West • The Valois monarchy tried to maintain stability The between Calvinists and Catholics. between • In 1562, civil war broke out between In Huguenots and French Catholics. Huguenots • On St. Bartholomew’s Day, August 24, 1562, On Charles IX had 3,000 Parisian Huguenots killed in just three days in • 10,000 died in the provinces over the next 6 10,000 weeks weeks • The St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre led to The greater international conflicts over religion. greater Edict of Nantes • Henry IV, a French Protestant, Henry tried to put the interests of the state above religion. state • In 1593 he converted to In Catholicism. Catholicism. • In 1598 he made peace with In Spain and issued the “Edict of Nantes” which granted Nantes” Huguenots the legal right to worship in the largely Catholic kingdom. kingdom. • He believed that in order for He there to be peace, the interests of the state had to take precedent over religious interests interests Challenges to the Habsburgs Challenges • Internal conflicts with Protestants were more difficult for Internal Charles V than the wars with the Ottoman Turks and the French. • Exhausted from wars, Charles V resigned his thrones in Exhausted 1555 leaving to his two sons his numerous territories: 1555 – Philip II: Spain, Spanish Netherlands, Burgundy, Philip Spanish colonies in the Americas. Spanish – Ferdinand I: Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. • Peace of Augsburg, 1555 between Peace – Tolerated some forms of Protestant practice but Tolerated excluded Anabaptists and Calvinists excluded – Peace would last until 1618, but the exclusion of Peace Calvinism planted the seed for future conflict in the HRE. HRE. • He drove 50,000 Moriscos—Muslim converts to Christianity—off of the Iberian Peninsula between 1568­ 1570, and 300,000 by 1614 had resettled in North Africa. • In 1571 he joined with Venice and the Papacy to defeat the Turks at the battle of Lepanto. Territories of Philip II Territories of Philip II The Rise of the Dutch Republic The Rise of the Dutch Republic • Calvinists rebelled in the Netherlands; in 1576 Philip II crushed them at the “Spanish Fury” in Antwerp. • In 1579 the Netherlands were divided between Spanish Netherlands in the south (Catholic) and Dutch Republic in the north (Protestant). • By 1600 the Dutch Republic was a self­ governing state. • Urban merchant families called “regents” governed local affairs. • Representatives of the regents formed the States General. • The Dutch economy thrived on trade and their commercial fleet of ships was the largest in Europe. • Amsterdam was also a thriving cultural and intellectual center known for its toleration. • Amsterdam was also a haven for Jewish refugees from the Iberian Peninsula. England becomes Protestant England becomes Protestant • Until 1527, Henry VIII opposed Protestantism, but family problems changed his mind. • 1529­1536 the English Parliament passed a series acts that severed its ties to Rome. • Act of Supremacy made Henry VIII the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church, nominally Protestant) Tudor Tudor Dynasty Spanish Armada, 1588 Spanish • For years, England oscillated between Protestantism and Catholicism • Under Elizabeth I, England became more Protestant, but she kept Calvinists in check and rejected an offer of marriage from Philip II. • Philip II then planned to invade England and restore Catholicism. • Elizabeth’s Catholic cousin, Mary Stuart, was forced by Calvinists to abdicate the throne of Scotland in favor of her Protestant son James I. Mary’s mother was French and the Calvinists feared her tiesto Rome. • Mary plotted against Elizabeth. Elizabeth discovered a letter offering England to Philip II and Elizabeth had Mary beheaded. • Pope Sixtus V called for a Catholic crusade against “the English Jezebel” Elizabeth. • In May 1588, Philip II sent his Armada of 130 ships to the English Channel • The Armada was defeated by English ships and bad weather. • Spain began its decline as a world power and England was increasing its power Catholic Renewal: Catholic Renewal: Counter­Reformation • Council of Trent, between 1543­1562 (Trent lies on the border between Italy and HRE • It’s decisions shaped Catholic doctrine until the 1960s • reestablished supremacy of clergy over laity • reaffirmed the doctrine of transubstantiation—that in the Eucharist the communion bread actually becomes Christ’s body • Society of Jesus, Ignatius of Loyola, was directed to spread Catholicism across the globe. • • • • • The war between 1618 The and 1648 was the most deadly of the wars of religion religion By its end, many By European rulers were bankrupt, and their lands and people devastated devastated The Thirty Years’ War The effectively removed religion from future European disputes European After 1648, the interests After of nation-states took precedence over religion in political affairs affairs These nation-states These would make increasing demands of their peoples peoples The Thirty Years’ War The • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Thirty Years’ War The Peace of Augsburg, 1555, was supposed to keep balance between Peace Protestants and Catholics in HRE Protestants Jesuits converted Lutheran cities back to Catholicism Calvinism increased (not recognized under Augsburg) In 1617, Catholic Archduke Ferdinand, King of Bohemia, began to curtail In religious freedoms. religious May 23, 1618: Prague Defenestration May Defenestration 1620 Rebellious Prague Protestants were defeated at White Mountain 1625, 1620 Albrecht von Wallenstein, organized a mercenary army to plunder German Protestant villages Protestant Lutheran King of Denmark, Christian IV, invaded HRE but was defeated by Lutheran Wallenstein Wallenstein 1629, Calvinism is outlawed in HRE Gustavus Adoplhus of Sweden invaded HRE in 1630 Alliance between Gustavus and Louis XIII of France 1635 France declared war on Spain and formed an alliance with the Dutch 1635 Republic Republic 1640 peasants in Catalonia rebelled against the Spanish crown; Portuguese 1640 and Dutch declared independence from Spain and 1643 Louis XIV inherits the French crown (age 5, the Sun King) The Thirty Years’ War The Jacques Callot, The Miseries of War, 1621 Jacques The Treaty of Westphalia, 1648 Treaty • • • • • • • Model for resolving international conflicts (Paris Peace Talks, 1919; League Model of Nations; UN) of For the first time, a congress of diplomats signed a treaty (rather than just For two parties) two France and Sweden gained the most – France acquired parts of Alsace – France became the dominant power in Europe – Sweden took territories from the HRE Habsburgs family lost the most – Spanish Habsburgs Recognized Dutch independence – Swiss Confederation and German Princes gained independence from Swiss Austrian Habsburgs Austrian – Each German prince had the freedom to establish religion in his territory, Each including Calvinism including Political divisions would remain until the 19th century Lutheranism in the north; Calvinism along the Rhine; Catholicism in the Lutheranism south south Future wars would be conducted for national interests, commercial ambition, Future dynastic pride, but not for religious uniformity dynastic Treaty of Westphalia, 1648 Treaty Christianity across the Globe Christianity • Christianity motivated and benefited from European expansion. expansion. • Spaniards and Portuguese saw overseas expansion as a continuation of the crusading tradition tradition • explorers combined religious and material interests explorers • imperialism made the globalization of Christianity possible possible • settlers and traders brought their religion with them settlers • missionaries, mostly Catholic, actively spread Christianity Christianity • missionary orders: Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits Jesuits • Portuguese missionaries led in Africa and Asia Portuguese • Spanish and French were prominent in the Americas Americas • Russian Orthodox missionaries worked in Siberia Siberia Jesuits at Jesuits Akbar’s court. Akbar’s Christianity across the Globe Christianity • missionaries were most successful in Spanish America and the Philippines and • European success encouraged belief that the old gods had been defeated gods • Christians didn’t confront a literate world religion there literate • Confucians, Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims resisted Christianity much more Christianity Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America Spanish • process of population collapse, conquest, and resettlement made Native Americans receptive to the conquering religion conquering • vast majority were baptized by 1700 1700 • Europeans claimed exclusive religious truth, tried to destroy traditional religions instead of accommodating them instead • occasional campaigns of destruction against the old religions • some overt resistance movements some • e.g., Taki Onqoy (“dancing sickness”) in central Peru (1560s) (1560s) Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America Spanish • blending of two religious traditions was more common was • local gods (huacas) remained local remained influential influential • immigrant Christianity took on patterns of pre-Christian life patterns • Christian saints took on functions of precolonial gods functions • leader of the church staff (fiscal) was a prestigious native who carried on the role of earlier religious specialists • many rituals survived, often with some Christian influence with An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits China • Christianity reached China in the powerful, prosperous Ming and Qing dynasties prosperous • called for a very different missionary strategy; needed government permission for operation needed • Jesuits especially targeted the official Chinese elite Chinese • like Matteo Ricci (in China 1582–1610), they dressed like Chinese scholars, emphasized exchange of ideas emphasized • were respectful of Chinese culture, tried to accommodate it to • no mass conversion in China • some scholars and officials converted some • Jesuits were appreciated for mathematical, astronomical, technological, and cartographical skills missionary efforts gained 200,000– skills 300,000 converts in 250 years An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits China • missionaries didn’t offer much that the Chinese needed needed • Christianity was unappealing as an “all or nothing” religion that would call for rejection of much Chinese culture much • early eighteenth century: papacy and other missionary orders opposed Jesuit accommodation policy of Chinese culture policy • was regarded as an affront to Chinese culture and the emperor’s authority and An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits China • In response the Chinese Emperor Kangxi in 1715 wrote, Emperor “I ask myself how these ask uncultivated Westerners dare to speak of the great precepts of China…. [T]heir doctrine is of the same kind as the little heresies of Buddhist and Taoist monks…. These are the greatest absurdities that have ever been seen. As from now I forbid the Westerners to spread their doctrine in China; that will spare us a lot of trouble.” us Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Persistence Cultural Traditions • African religious elements accompanied slaves to the Americas slaves • development of Africanized forms of Christianity in the Americas, with divination, dream interpretation, visions, spirit possession possession • Europeans often tried to suppress African elements as sorcery elements • persistence of syncretic religions (Vodou, Santeria, Candomble, Macumba) Santeria, Expansion and Renewal in the Expansion Islamic World • continued spread of Islam depended not on conquest but on wandering holy men, scholars, and traders but • offered connections to the wider, prosperous world of Islam of • the syncretism of Islamization was increasingly offensive to orthodox Muslims offensive • helped provoke movements of religious renewal in the eighteenth century the • series of jihads, or struggles for improvement, in jihads or West Africa (eighteenth/early nineteenth centuries) attacked corrupt Islamic practices attacked • growing tension between localized and “pure” Islam Islam Wahhabism Wahhabism • the most well-known Islamic renewal movement of the period was Wahhabism Wahhabism • developed in the Arabian Peninsula in mid-eighteenth century century • founder Abd al-Wahhab (1703– founder 1792) was a theologian • aimed to restore absolute monotheism, end veneration of saints saints • aimed to restore strict adherence to the sharia (Islamic law) law) Wahhabism Wahhabism • movement developed a political element when Abd alWahhab allied with Muhammad Ibn Saud; led to creation of a state • the state was “purified” • women were expected to subject themselves to husbands • “idols” were destroyed • tobacco, hashish, and musical instruments were banned • certain taxes were abolished • the political power of the Wahhabis was broken in 1818, but the movement remained influential in Islamic world • reform movements persisted and became associated China: New Directions in an Old Tradition China: • Chinese and Indian cultural/religious change wasn’t as dramatic as what occurred in Europe wasn’t • Confucian and Hindu cultures didn’t spread widely in early modern period but neither remained static remained • Ming and Qing dynasty China still operated within a Confucian framework within • addition of Buddhist and Daoist thought led to creation of Neo-Confucianism • both dynasties embraced the Confucian tradition tradition China: New Directions in an Old Tradition China: • considerable amount of debate and new thinking in China thinking • Wang Yangmin (1472–1529): anyone can achieve a virtuous life by introspection, with Confucian education introspection, • critics later argued that this individualism contributed to the Manchu conquest of China • Chinese Buddhists also tried to make religion more accessible to commoners— religion withdrawal from the world not necessary withdrawal for enlightenment for • similarity to Martin Luther’s argument that individuals could seek salvation without help from a priestly hierarchy without China: New Directions in an Old Tradition China: • kaozheng (“research based on evidence”) kaozheng was a new direction in Chinese elite culture was • emphasized need for analysis, instead of unsupported speculation unsupported • led to new works on agriculture, medicine, etc. • included critical analysis of ancient historical documents historical • scientific approach to knowledge (applied more to the past than to the natural world) more China: New Directions in an Old Tradition China: • lively popular culture among the less well educated • production of plays, paintings, and literature great age of novels, such as Cao Xueqin’s The Dream of the Red Chamber Chamber (mid-eighteenth (mid-eighteenth century) century) India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide India: • several movements brought Hindus and Muslims together in new forms of religious expression • bhakti movement was especially important • devotional Hinduism • effort to achieve union with the divine through songs, prayers, dances, poetry, and rituals • appealed especially to women • often set aside caste distinctions • much common ground with Sufism, helped to blur the line between Islam and Hinduism in India • Mirabai (1498–1547) is one of the best loved bhakti poets • high-caste woman who refused to commit sati when her husband died • took an untouchable as her guru • poetry of yearning for union with Krishna India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide India: • growth of Sikhism, a religion that blended Islam and Hinduism Islam • founder Guru Nanak (1469–1539) had been part of the bhakti movement; came to believe that Islam and Hinduism were one one • Nanak and his successors set aside caste distinctions and proclaimed essential equality of men and women essential • gradually developed as a new religion of the Punjab of • developed a Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth (teacher book) Guru • created a central shrine, the Golden Temple of Amritsar Temple • mandated distinctive dress for men mandated • evolved into a militant community in response to hostility response Conclusion Conclusion • In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Christianity expanded into a global religion seeking converts. expanded • In places that did not have a well-established civilization conversion was easier for Europeans; in places which had strong traditions such as China, it was more difficult. strong • Christianity in Europe was divided between the Roman Catholic Church in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Catholic • Catholicism was shaken by the revolutionary criticisms of Martin Luther Martin • Protestantism itself was divided into various sects such as Calvinism, Anabaptism, Puritanism and Quakerism. Calvinism, • Wahhabism erupted on the Arabian Peninsula in the eighteenth century seeking a purified form of Islam, similar to the reforms of Martin Luther in Western Europe a few centuries before. before. Terms Terms • Eucharist Eucharist • predestination predestination • huacas huacas • kaozheng kaozheng • Wahhabism Wahhabism ...
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