Lecture 7 revolution - The Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes 1750-1850 1750-1850 Reordering the World Reordering • Political upheavals in the

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Unformatted text preview: The Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes 1750-1850 1750-1850 Reordering the World Reordering • Political upheavals in the Atlantic world destroyed the colonial domains of Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France in the Americas and established numerous new nations. • They also produced the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. • Together the upheavals ushered in the era of the nation-state. • These changes often forced reflection and restructuring of the political and economical relation back in Europe. back Revolutionary Transformations Revolutionary • The transatlantic disruption that occurred between 1750 and 1850 had its roots in the mercantilist system of the previous century of • As wealth increased (esp. the middle class), men and women who partook of this wealth demanded a relaxation of mercantilist restrictions relaxation • They demanded greater freedom to trade They • They demanded more influence in governing institutions institutions • Over time, these demands became more radical and revolutionary. revolutionary Revolutionary Transformations Revolutionary • Revolutionaries championed the concept of popular sovereignty, free people, free trade, free markets, and free labor as a more just and efficient foundation for society society • The question then emerged of how far to extend these freedoms freedoms • Revolutionaries disagreed whether these freedoms applied to women, slaves, Native Americans, and other non-Europeans, and the propertyless non-Europeans, • By and large, Europeans and Euro-American elite groups reserved these freedoms for themselves groups • Europeans also used force to open Asian and African markets to their trade and investment markets Political Reorderings Political • The spread of revolutionary ideas across the Atlantic world in the second half of the eighteenth century followed the trail of • ideas. However, the Enlightenment didn’t cause the revolution. Economic conditions did. Economic • As the rhetoric of revolution spread, people disagreed over the meaning of terms such as liberty, independence, freedom, and equality (ideas from the Enlightenment) equality • These ideas materialized in the American colonies and then it lead to French Revolutions lead • In both, revolutions replaced monarchies with republics In • The revolutions, in turn, encouraged other similar developments in the Caribbean and much of Spanish America America • After the break with monarchies, revolutionary societies tended to break into liberal, moderate, or radical factions. to • At first moderates won the debate but radical ideas proved The North American War of Independence, 1776–1783 1776–1783 • Britain’s North American colonies proved highly prosperous by mid-century prosperous • This prosperity masked tensions tensions • Land was a constant source of dispute source • Big planters’ interests often collided with independent farmers’ farmers’ • Western settlers, seeking available land, often clashed with Indian and French interests with • In the Seven Years’ War, colonists and the British military defeated the French and their Indian allies Indian American War of Independence American •Treaty of Paris (1763): Treaty Britain received Canada; France kept its Caribbean colonies. • To avenge their loss to Britain, France will support the colonist rebellion against Britain. rebellion • 1760-1770 British Parliament passes a series of acts taxing colonies for goods imported from Britain imported American War of Independence American Eventually this agitation turned Eventually into warfare and calls for independence by pundits such as Thomas Paine in Common Sense Sense Boston Massacre, 1770 American War of Independence American • Tea Act of 1773, Boston Tea Party Tea American War of Independence American • British troops began fighting colonial militias fighting • First Continental Congress failed to persuade the crown to remove troops to • Second Continental Congress organized an army under George Washington. • In 1776, Congress proclaimed the Declaration of Independence from Britain; written by Thomas Jefferson, using language borrowed from Enlightenment philosophers Enlightenment Attributed to Attributed Benjamin Franklin during the Frenchduring Indian War, this Indian political drawing was recycled during the war with Britain. war American War of Independence American • The new revolutionary rhetoric inspired common men no longer to defer to gentlemen of higher rank gentlemen • Many women demanded greater respect and equality equality • Slaves often fled to British forces, expecting freedom in exchange for loyalty to the crown loyalty • In Shays’ Rebellion in 1786, independent farmers in Massachusetts organized an armed rebellion against taxes they could not pay they American War of Independence American • George III (king of England) denounced the Americans as “traitors and rebels” but newspapers throughout Continental Europe enthusiastically supported the Americans. enthusiastically • In 1778, France under Louis XVI entered the war against the British (revenge the seven years war), with assistance from the French navy. Spain also supported the colonists in the hope of checking British power, but cautiously because they did not want their own colonies to revolt. revolt. • In 1780, Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in retaliation for Dutch support of the Americans. Dutch • October 1781, the British were cornered at Yorktown, Virginia by the French navy and Washington’s troops. French • The Americans achieved independence at the Paris Peace Treaty of 1783, the Americans received all British land east of the Mississippi River. River. • The most radical impact was the sense (not reality) that all men have an equal voice in government and that inherited status carried no political weight in the new republic…though slavery continued just as American War of Independence American American War of Independence American The French Revolution, 1789-1799 The The French Revolution The • The French Revolution, even more than the American Revolution, inspired many other rebellions around the world that lasted into the twentieth century • As in the American Revolution, Enlightenment ideas against oppressive government had gained legitimacy among millions and helped propel the nation into revolution • In addition, harvests had been poor for years, leading many peasants to protest heavy tax burdens • King Louis XVI opened the door for reform in France when he convened the Estates-General in 1788 in order to seek new forms of revenue to service the crown’s debt Causes of the French Revolution Causes • Economic factors: Economic -- Long-term inflation, especially food prices --- Middle-term recession in 1780s; high unemployment --- Short-term agricultural crisis 1788-89 -• Social factors: -- Unhappiness of Nobility (caste system) after Louis XIV XIV -- Growing power of noble Parlements Parlements -- Middle class demand for positions open to talent rather than heredity rather -- Peasants bore the greatest tax burder; they attacked seigneurial dues attacked Causes of the French Revolution Causes • Cultural factors: impact and spread of the Enlightenment Enlightenment -- Was Enlightenment thought revolutionary?(Yes and No) revolutionary?(Yes -- Few Enlightenment writers lived into the Revolution Revolution -- Impact of Enlightenment on society in general was fairly small general -- Role of American Revolution: shows Enlightened society possible? Enlightened • Political factors: Political -- Crisis of leadership: Louis XV, Louis XVI (they didn’t know how to use the power that they had) that -- Fiscal crisis, large debts --- Impact of American Revolution --- Impending bankruptcy leads to calling Events of the French Revolution Events • Louis XVI calls on the Estates General (spring 1789) to meet at Versailles to solve the growing debt of the nation of -- 1st Estate (Clergy): 100,000 -Catholics; owned 10% of the land land -- 2nd Estate (Nobility): -400,000; owned 25% of the land land -- 3rd Estate (Commoners): -95% of the total French population population • Draw up statements of grievances Draw • Third Estate turns Estates General into National Assembly (June 17) (June • Tennis Court Oath (June 20) Tennis Attack on the Bastille, July 14, 1789 Attack • Upon hearing of these events, masses of population enter the Revolution Revolution • King fires his finance minister, Jacques Necker who was sympathetic to the revolutionaries (July 11) • After the news of Necker’s dismissal, common Parisians (ordinary people in Paris) began to arm themselves; attack on the Bastille (July 14) Bastille Great Fear and the Abolition of Feudalism Great • The Great Fear in the countryside (July-August) countryside • Peasants revolted against paying taxes to nobles paying • burned down chateaus to destroy records of debts. destroy • Before drafting a new constitution, the deputies of the National Assembly had to stop the violence in the French countryside • Night of August 4 (official end of "feudalism", positions open to talent); Nobles give up their tax collections on peasants. peasants. Girondins and Jacobins Girondins • As the Revolution gathered speed, it split into different directions it • Liberals, or Girondins, wanted Girondins wanted a constitutional monarchy constitutional • Jacobins wanted to create a pure republic with a new culture pure • Enragés believed that liberty for all meant more than mere constitutional rights. • Their leader, Jacques: “Liberty is no more than an empty shell when one class is allowed to condemn another to starvation and no measures taken against them”. them”. “October Days”: Women March on Women Versailles, October 1789 1789 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Return to Paris Paris Festival of Federation, Federation, Constitutional Constitutional Monarchy Monarchy • The National Assembly remakes France: • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of • Total transformation of central govt, courts, army, laws, etc. laws, • Constitutional monarchy is declared is Contemporary Depictions of Louis XVI Contemporary • Breakdown of Unity (1791-93) Breakdown • King's attempted flight (June 21, 1791: stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris) brought • Jacobins get the upper hand. Jacobins Breakdown of the Constitutional Monarchy Breakdown •Breakdown of Unity (1791-93) • France declares war on Austria (April 1792); Louis hopes Leopold II and the Austrians will put an end to the Revolution. Leopold • Prussia invades France, threatening to burn Paris to the ground if the royal family are hurt. if • Paranoid fears of conspiracy spread among the Jacobins Paranoid • September Massacres: 1100 prison inmates are killed by the revolutionaries looking for traitors, as the Prussians approach Paris. Paris. • French mobilized citizens and achieved victory at the Battle of Valmy against the Prussians. Valmy • National Convention declares the First French Republic (September 22, 1792) (September • Divided population: for some, the revolution meant food, land, and retribution; for others it brought an end to the church and monarchy. monarchy. Execution of Louis XVI, Jan. 21, 1793 Execution The Reign of Terror The • After the fall of the monarchy in 1792 the deputies were divided over the fate of the king. the • The execution of the king only compounded the new government’s problems. problems. • Fear of the revolution spreading across Europe mobilized many of France’s neighbors. France’s • The revolutionary government was now faced with a struggle for survival against a counterrevolution and invasion by foreign armies. and The Terror and Robespierre The • Committee of Public Safety was formed in April 1793 to fight foreign armies and hunt down enemies of the revolution. revolution. • Robespierre became one of the most controversial Jacobin figures because of Jacobin his loyalty to the revolution and his putting the terror into practice. the • Revolutionary tribunal and guillotine as the means of punishment; emergency powers established powers • “The first maxim of your policies must The be to lead the people by reason and the reason people’s enemies by terror….without virtue, terror is deadly; without terror, virtue is impotent.” virtue • For Robespierre, the goal of democracy required suppression of all dissent. required Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) The Republic of Virtue, 1793-1794 The • “Republicanize everything” • National anthem National • posters, pamphlets, souvenirs posters, • figure of Liberty figure • new money new • New plays New • Revolutionary festivals Revolutionary • De-Christianization De-Christianization •Education, free and compulsory for boys Education, and girls, but backfired for lack of teachers teachers • Tricolor Tricolor • Names for children Names • new calendar: 12 months, 30 days, 10new day weeks with 1 day off/week--not very day popular popular • metric system, still survives in most of metric still the world. the • Most French people resisted these new practices. Women and the Revolution Women • Majority of women were greatly disadvantaged under Old Regime Majority • Literacy and educational gender gap Literacy • Legal obedience to fathers and husbands Legal • No property rights, right of divorce, or rights over children No • No formal political rights No • Middle and upper class women better off Middle • Most literate, attend school, have tutors Most • Though education often in convents and mainly domestic skills Though • Privileged life of women at court and in salons Privileged • Intellectuals long debated rights of women Intellectuals • Many philosophes support women's education Many • Rousseau supported patriarch Rousseau • Women's roles in early Revolution Women's • Limited participation in pre-Revolutionary politics Limited • Role in uprisings and riots; the October Days Role • Role in counterrevolution especially prominent Role Women and the Revolution Women • Olympe de Gouges' "Declaration of the Rights of Women" (1791) Rights • She promoted woman’s suffrage. The Constitution gave that right only to men. • It also did not address key issues like • legal equality in marriage, • the right for a woman to divorce her spouse, • a woman’s right to property. • Throughout the document, it is apparent to the reader that Gouges had been influenced by the Enlightenment. by • Gains for women through Revolution Gains • Condorcet backs equality if women Condorcet • Legislature votes expanded women's rights rights • Gained property holdings, inheritance, divorce, children divorce, Women and the Rebvolution Women Charlotte Corday • During Terror, Revolution turned against women women • Repression of women's political clubs clubs • Many feminists arrested or guillotined guillotined • Jean-Paul Marat was a leading deputy who demanded more heads and blood. who • He was killed in his bath by Charlotte Corday in July 1793. • Corday felt it her duty to kill Marat. Corday • Marat became a martyr of the Revolution, and immortalized in the famous painting by Jacques-Louis David. famous • Napoleonic Code and Restoration of the monarchy remove most gains of the revolution revolution • But the Revolution stands as legacy for future feminist movements future Death of Marat, by Jacques-Louis David Counterrevolution and Revolt Counterrevolution • Revolts spread throughout France, including Vendée, where civil war broke out bewteen the “Catholic and Royal Army” and Revolutionaries. Revolutionaries. Fall of Robespierre and the End of the Terror, 1794-1799 and •The revolution also went against The dissenters within the Convention itself. dissenters • Robespierre’s enemy, Danton, favored moderation of the Terror. He was arrested and beheaded. was • “The Revolution was devouring its The own children,” said one member of the National Assembly. National • The number of deaths by guillotine in Paris jumped from 5 per day in the spring of 1794 to 26 per day by summer. summer. • Meanwhile, French armies were marching through the Austrian Netherlands. Netherlands. • Robespierre had made so many enemies that he could no longer afford to loosen the Terror. to • The Terror killed more than 40,000 people. people. “Thermidorian Reaction” • “Thermidorean Reaction”: reversal of Robespierre’s Thermidorean policies, release of hundreds of suspects, and made a truce in Vendée. in • In order to maintain control over both the radical left and the counter-revolutionary right, the Thermidoreans consolidated their power and began to limit democracy. their • Jacobins were purged within the convention Jacobins • Within a year the Revolutionary Tribunal was abolished. Within • In 1795, a new constitution was drafted, with a twoIn house legislature and an executive body, the Directory. • Between 1795 and 1799 the French Republic endured, but it continued to fight wars abroad. it • These wars would enable a general in the French army, Napoleon Bonaparte, to come to power, abolish the Republic, and establish a French empire with himself as its leader. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Napoleon • Napoleon came to power after leading campaigns in Italy in 1796leading 1797. • In 1798, the French government sent Napoleon to Egypt. Napoleon • They wanted to control trade by taking Egypt and cutting into British trade from India. Napoleon’s Army in Egypt, 1798 Napoleon’s Napoleon in Egypt Napoleon dreamed of reinventing the Roman Empire on French foundations. He took the ideals of the French Revolution—liberty, equality, fraternity—and claimed that his armies brought these ideas to oppressed peoples, and that they would embrace them openly. (first instance of Imperialism) In other words, he considered himself a liberator. But, in his experience in Egypt, Napoleon would find otherwise. But, The Directory of the French Republic in 1798 set aside plans for invading England, and instead chose to occupy Egypt in order to disrupt British trade from India. Napoleon used Egyptian animosity towards the Ottoman Empire, misleading them into thinking that he was fighting for Islam. misleading After defeating the Ottoman army at the Battle of the Pyramids in 1798, Napoleon was met with stiff determined resistance from the local Egyptian populations. Before being driven out of Egypt by the British navy, Napoleon stayed in Egypt long enough to disseminate Enlightenment and revolutionary ideas to the local population. the Napoleon Bonaparte and the French Empire Napoleon • In 1799, Napoleon arrived back in Paris to a disillusioned and war-torn government ready to abolish the constitution of 1795. government • Napoleon and his troops engineered a coup d’état that abolished the coup constitution, and established a three-man executive called the consulate, with Bonaparte as First Consul. with • Napoleon falsified votes to ratify a new constitution, and give the illusion of support for his regime. of • Within a year the French Revolution had ended, and a new authoritarian state was established. authoritarian • He reconciled with the Catholic church and nobles returned from exile. He • He resumed the centralization begun under Louis XIV. He • In 1804 he established the Napoleonic Code: Napoleonic • ensured property rights ensured • guaranteed religious freedom guaranteed • established a uniform legal system established • equal treatment for all adult males. equal • curtailed the few gains that women had achieved during the Revolution, and even abolished some rights they had under the Old Regime. Regime. Napoleon Bonaparte and the French Empire Napoleon • Napoleon envisioned a new Roman empire based on the principles he espoused in France espoused • His attempts to bring Europe under French rule laid the foundations for nineteenth-century nationalist strife nineteenth-century • Strong local resistance appeared in Spain, Germany, and Egypt • As locals in areas occupied by the French were tired of hearing that French ways were superior, they looked to their own pasts for inspiration inspiration • Napoleon’s military campaigns became a global conflict, with fighting in Africa, Europe, and the Americas in Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon • When the attempt to retake St. Domingue failed, Napoleon decided to give up on the Western Hemisphere. He sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States in 1803. Territory French Empire 1812 French Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon • A coalition of Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Britain finally defeated him in 1815 and • He was captured and spent his remaining years under house arrest on the island of St. Helena. St. Congress of Vienna, 1815 Congress • With the fall of Napoleon, many of the countries allied against France wanted to prevent the recurrence of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Revolution • They also wanted European monarchies to return. They • The Vienna settlement produced a new balance of powers, guaranteeing the sovereignty of smaller states and preventing any large state form obtaining excessive power (becoming too powerful). powerful). • Five major powers at Vienna: • Austria, Russia, Prussia: absolutist monarchies Austria, • Britain and France Britain • Following in the tradition of the Westphalia Treaty of 1648, The Vienna Congress would become a model for the League of Nations (1919) and the UN (1948). Nations Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859) Prince • Chief negotiator for Austria at the Vienna talks. Vienna • Along with Britain argued that French power should be held in check, but that the stability of Europe depended on France as a major power in order to keep Prussia and Russia from excessive power. Russia • France lost all territory conquered since 1790 and had to pay indemnity and support an occupying army. and • The goal of the Vienna talks was to achieve stability and establish secure national borders. national Congress of Vienna, 1815 Congress Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815 Europe Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815 Europe • The Congress of Vienna could not turn the clock back completely completely • In many areas, some of Napoleon’s reforms were kept in place kept • The abolition of serfdom among German states The • The nationalist sentiments that French troops stirred continued in places such as Germany and Italy • The Congress agreed (in principle) to condemn the slave trade, which had been abolished by Britain in 1807, but the trade in human beings continued until 1840, and slavery as an institution until the 1860s. 1840, The Americas • In the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, the political power that Spain and Portugal had in the Americas diminished. diminished. • Independence movements led to established republics between 1804 and 1830. 1830. • Colonists from Mexico to Argentina rebelled. to The Haitian Revolution • Between 1791 and 1803, the Between French island colony of San Domingue erupted in a slave revolt that would later be called the Haitian Revolution. Haitian • Led by a barely literate slave Led named Tousaint L’Ouverture, the island’s slaves fought off the French, Spanish, and English forces until finally declaring independence in 1803. independence • The Haitian Revolution was the only The only successful slave revolution in the New World. • It was never recognized by the It United States out of fear that its own slaves would follow suit. own Simon Bolívar (Spain:1783Simon 1830) He thought of himself as a Latin American Napoleon. Like Napoleon, he wanted to unite all of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies into one American nation. colonies Local identities prevailed over the Spanish-American identity that Bolívar was promoting. promoting. The resulting independent republics were often ruled by military leaders called caudillos, rather than local nationalists or caudillos rather former slaves; only Haiti was a republic of former slaves. former The US recognized these American states and in 1823 the Monroe Doctrine was made into law to prohibit the Americas from further European intervention, but gave the US a right to economic privileges. economic The agreement depended on British willingness to remain neutral as they had the most powerful navy on the globe. the Latin American Expansion By the mid 19th century most Latin American states land went to wealthy estate holders who produced coffee, sugar, tobacco, or beef for export. sugar, Privileged elites monopolized political power at the expense of the poorer Indians and blacks. Indians Many elites feared Indian uprisings and created nation-states that excluded poor indigenous and former slaves. indigenous The largest land grab occurred in Brazil where capitalists were allowed to extract latex from rubber plants required for lubricants in industrial manufacturing. Rubber and sulfur combined to make the raw materials of tire manufacturers. Brazilian capitalists became extremely wealthy and enjoyed lavish culture, while the poorer indigenous rubber workers or “tappers” sent what little money they made to their families in other parts of Brazil. Mexican Independence from Spain Mexican Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 after two rural priests, Father Miguel Hidalgo (1753-1811) and Father José María (1765-1815) led an insurrection of peasants, Indians, and artisans against the Spanish rulers. rulers. They called for an end to elite abuses, denounced bad government, redistribution of wealth, return of land to the Indians. Indians. Once the Spanish crown fell in 1820, the insurgents succeeded in gaining independence with the help of the Mexican generals of the former Spanish army. former Mexican Independence from Spain Mexican Change and Trade in Africa Change • Increased domestic and world trade led to new state-building Increased • New and powerful kingdoms emerged around Lake Victoria in the first half of the nineteenth century first • Abolition of the slave trade Abolition • In the aftermath of the American and French Revolutions, a small group of abolitionists emerged, often led by Quakers, who wanted to end the slave trade end • Soon they achieved success Soon • Denmark banned the slave trade in 1803 Denmark • Great Britain banned it in 1807, and the United States banned it in 1808 1808 • France followed in 1814 France • By 1850, the amount of slaves traded had dropped sharply By • In 1867 the last slave vessel crossed the Atlantic In • The British navy was instrumental in suppressing the slave trade and enforcing these bans enforcing • Both Sierra Leone and Liberia on the West African coast became home to freed captives and former slaves returning from America to New Trade with Africa and the Continuation of Slavery New • European traders promoted new forms of commerce, dubbed “legitimate” trade, after the demise of the slave trade • West Africans began to export palm oil, peanuts, and vegetable oils • Some deforestation occurred because of new export crops • This new legitimate trade gave rise to new political and commercial powers • New merchants amassed new fortunes • For some states, the demise of the slave trade was a disaster • The Asante state wavered but endured • The Yoruba state fell • The end of the slave trade strengthened slavery in Africa • More and more slaves were used for fieldwork or as porters, not domestic servants • The Fulani Emirates of northern Nigeria had a population that was 80 percent slaves • Africa became the largest slaveholding continent in the nineteenth century Nationalism Nationalism Nationalism was the most complex and the most abstract of political ideologies. political Nationalists could also be liberal, conservative, socialist, and in some cases, communist. some Nationalism is the idea that all peoples derive their identities from their nations, which are defined by, common language, shared cultural traditions, and sometimes religion although nationalist practices tend traditions, to substitute for religious. to Nations are defined by a common ethnicity, culture, and often territory, but not always. Many political states, such as the Austrian Empire under the Hapsburgs, contained numerous peoples of various nationalities that in no way could identify themselves as having an Austrian national identity. Austrian The origins of nationalism lie in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, and nationalist sentiments spread across the globe in the 19th century. National Languages of Europe of Nationalism Nationalism In most of the states of the German Confederation established in 1815, German nationalists wanted a government uniting German-speaking people, but they could not decide on its boundaries. not Nationalism swept across Europe from Austria, Italy, Russia, Ireland. Russia, In almost all cases nationalist identity is defined in opposition to other groups (British nationalists defined themselves as not-French; Irish nationalists identified themselves in opposition to the British). themselves According to Benedict Anderson, a nation is defined as an imagined community because each person imagines him or imagined herself as having a national identity in common with those whom they have never met. whom Conclusion Conclusion • In the aftermath of the Enlightenment in the 18th In century, a revolutionary fever spread throughout the Atlantic world. Atlantic • The American War of Independence, the French Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars, produced a new political era in the 19th century. Wars, • The spread of these movements produced independence movements in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caribbean. • In Africa, the end of the slave trade produced further hardships on African states who benefited from the trade. trade. • Although the trade in human beings stopped, slavery continued well into the 19th century. continued Terms Terms • Estates General Estates • Jacobins Jacobins • Reign of Terror Reign • the Napoleonic Code the • San Domingue San • Nationalism Nationalism ...
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