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Lecture 7 revolution - The Atlantic Revolutions and Their...

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Unformatted text preview: The Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes 1750-1850 1750-1850 Reordering the World Reordering • Political upheavals in the Atlantic world destroyed the colonial domains of Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France in the Americas and established numerous new nations. • They also produced the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. • Together the upheavals ushered in the era of the nation-state. • These changes often forced reflection and restructuring of the political and economical relation back in Europe. back Revolutionary Transformations Revolutionary • The transatlantic disruption that occurred between 1750 and 1850 had its roots in the mercantilist system of the previous century of • As wealth increased (esp. the middle class), men and women who partook of this wealth demanded a relaxation of mercantilist restrictions relaxation • They demanded greater freedom to trade They • They demanded more influence in governing institutions institutions • Over time, these demands became more radical and revolutionary. revolutionary Revolutionary Transformations Revolutionary • Revolutionaries championed the concept of popular sovereignty, free people, free trade, free markets, and free labor as a more just and efficient foundation for society society • The question then emerged of how far to extend these freedoms freedoms • Revolutionaries disagreed whether these freedoms applied to women, slaves, Native Americans, and other non-Europeans, and the propertyless non-Europeans, • By and large, Europeans and Euro-American elite groups reserved these freedoms for themselves groups • Europeans also used force to open Asian and African markets to their trade and investment markets Political Reorderings Political • The spread of revolutionary ideas across the Atlantic world in the second half of the eighteenth century followed the trail of • ideas. However, the Enlightenment didn’t cause the revolution. Economic conditions did. Economic • As the rhetoric of revolution spread, people disagreed over the meaning of terms such as liberty, independence, freedom, and equality (ideas from the Enlightenment) equality • These ideas materialized in the American colonies and then it lead to French Revolutions lead • In both, revolutions replaced monarchies with republics In • The revolutions, in turn, encouraged other similar developments in the Caribbean and much of Spanish America America • After the break with monarchies, revolutionary societies tended to break into liberal, moderate, or radical factions. to • At first moderates won the debate but radical ideas proved The North American War of Independence, 1776–1783 1776–1783 • Britain’s North American colonies proved highly prosperous by mid-century prosperous • This prosperity masked tensions tensions • Land was a constant source of dispute source • Big planters’ interests often collided with independent farmers’ farmers’ • Western settlers, seeking available land, often clashed with Indian and French interests with • In the Seven Years’ War, colonists and the British military defeated the French and their Indian allies Indian American War of Independence American •Treaty of Paris (1763): Treaty Britain received Canada; France kept its Caribbean colonies. • To avenge their loss to Britain, France will support the colonist rebellion against Britain. rebellion • 1760-1770 British Parliament passes a series of acts taxing colonies for goods imported from Britain imported American War of Independence American Eventually this agitation turned Eventually into warfare and calls for independence by pundits such as Thomas Paine in Common Sense Sense Boston Massacre, 1770 American War of Independence American • Tea Act of 1773, Boston Tea Party Tea American War of Independence American • British troops began fighting colonial militias fighting • First Continental Congress failed to persuade the crown to remove troops to • Second Continental Congress organized an army under George Washington. • In 1776, Congress proclaimed the Declaration of Independence from Britain; written by Thomas Jefferson, using language borrowed from Enlightenment philosophers Enlightenment Attributed to Attributed Benjamin Franklin during the Frenchduring Indian War, this Indian political drawing was recycled during the war with Britain. war American War of Independence American • The new revolutionary rhetoric inspired common men no longer to defer to gentlemen of higher rank gentlemen • Many women demanded greater respect and equality equality • Slaves often fled to British forces, expecting freedom in exchange for loyalty to the crown loyalty • In Shays’ Rebellion in 1786, independent farmers in Massachusetts organized an armed rebellion against taxes they could not pay they American War of Independence American • George III (king of England) denounced the Americans as “traitors and rebels” but newspapers throughout Continental Europe enthusiastically supported the Americans. enthusiastically • In 1778, France under Louis XVI entered the war against the British (revenge the seven years war), with assistance from the French navy. Spain also supported the colonists in the hope of checking British power, but cautiously because they did not want their own colonies to revolt. revolt. • In 1780, Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in retaliation for Dutch support of the Americans. Dutch • October 1781, the British were cornered at Yorktown, Virginia by the French navy and Washington’s troops. French • The Americans achieved independence at the Paris Peace Treaty of 1783, the Americans received all British land east of the Mississippi River. River. • The most radical impact was the sense (not reality) that all men have an equal voice in government and that inherited status carried no political weight in the new republic…though slavery continued just as American War of Independence American American War of Independence American The French Revolution, 1789-1799 The The French Revolution The • The French Revolution, even more than the American Revolution, inspired many other rebellions around the world that lasted into the twentieth century • As in the American Revolution, Enlightenment ideas against oppressive government had gained legitimacy among millions and helped propel the nation into revolution • In addition, harvests had been poor for years, leading many peasants to protest heavy tax burdens • King Louis XVI opened the door for reform in France when he convened the Estates-General in 1788 in order to seek new forms of revenue to service the crown’s debt Causes of the French Revolution Causes • Economic factors: Economic -- Long-term inflation, especially food prices --- Middle-term recession in 1780s; high unemployment --- Short-term agricultural crisis 1788-89 -• Social factors: -- Unhappiness of Nobility (caste system) after Louis XIV XIV -- Growing power of noble Parlements Parlements -- Middle class demand for positions open to talent rather than heredity rather -- Peasants bore the greatest tax burder; they attacked seigneurial dues attacked Causes of the French Revolution Causes • Cultural factors: impact and spread of the Enlightenment Enlightenment -- Was Enlightenment thought revolutionary?(Yes and No) revolutionary?(Yes -- Few Enlightenment writers lived into the Revolution Revolution -- Impact of Enlightenment on society in general was fairly small general -- Role of American Revolution: shows Enlightened society possible? Enlightened • Political factors: Political -- Crisis of leadership: Louis XV, Louis XVI (they didn’t know how to use the power that they had) that -- Fiscal crisis, large debts --- Impact of American Revolution --- Impending bankruptcy leads to calling Events of the French Revolution Events • Louis XVI calls on the Estates General (spring 1789) to meet at Versailles to solve the growing debt of the nation of -- 1st Estate (Clergy): 100,000 -Catholics; owned 10% of the land land -- 2nd Estate (Nobility): -400,000; owned 25% of the land land -- 3rd Estate (Commoners): -95% of the total French population population • Draw up statements of grievances Draw • Third Estate turns Estates General into National Assembly (June 17) (June • Tennis Court Oath (June 20) Tennis Attack on the Bastille, July 14, 1789 Attack • Upon hearing of these events, masses of population enter the Revolution Revolution • King fires his finance minister, Jacques Necker who was sympathetic to the revolutionaries (July 11) • After the news of Necker’s dismissal, common Parisians (ordinary people in Paris) began to arm themselves; attack on the Bastille (July 14) Bastille Great Fear and the Abolition of Feudalism Great • The Great Fear in the countryside (July-August) countryside • Peasants revolted against paying taxes to nobles paying • burned down chateaus to destroy records of debts. destroy • Before drafting a new constitution, the deputies of the National Assembly had to stop the violence in the French countryside • Night of August 4 (official end of "feudalism", positions open to talent); Nobles give up their tax collections on peasants. peasants. Girondins and Jacobins Girondins • As the Revolution gathered speed, it split into different directions it • Liberals, or Girondins, wanted Girondins wanted a constitutional monarchy constitutional • Jacobins wanted to create a pure republic with a new culture pure • Enragés believed that liberty for all meant more than mere constitutional rights. • Their leader, Jacques: “Liberty is no more than an empty shell when one class is allowed to condemn another to starvation and no measures taken against them”. them”. “October Days”: Women March on Women Versailles, October 1789 1789 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Return to Paris Paris Festival of Federation, Federation, Constitutional Constitutional Monarchy Monarchy • The National Assembly remakes France: • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of • Total transformation of central govt, courts, army, laws, etc. laws, • Constitutional monarchy is declared is Contemporary Depictions of Louis XVI Contemporary • Breakdown of Unity (1791-93) Breakdown • King's attempted flight (June 21, 1791: stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris) brought • Jacobins get the upper hand. Jacobins Breakdown of the Constitutional Monarchy Breakdown •Breakdown of Unity (1791-93) • France declares war on Austria (April 1792); Louis hopes Leopold II and the Austrians will put an end to the Revolution. Leopold • Prussia invades France, threatening to burn Paris to the ground if the royal family are hurt. if • Paranoid fears of conspiracy spread among the Jacobins Paranoid • September Massacres: 1100 prison inmates are killed by the revolutionaries looking for traitors, as the Prussians approach Paris. Paris. • French mobilized citizens and achieved victory at the Battle of Valmy against the Prussians. Valmy • National Convention declares the First French Republic (September 22, 1792) (September • Divided population: for some, the revolution meant food, land, and retribution; for others it brought an end to the church and monarchy. monarchy. Execution of Louis XVI, Jan. 21, 1793 Execution The Reign of Terror The • After the fall of the monarchy in 1792 the deputies were divided over the fate of the king. the • The execution of the king only compounded the new government’s problems. problems. • Fear of the revolution spreading across Europe mobilized many of France’s neighbors. France’s • The revolutionary government was now faced with a struggle for survival against a counterrevolution and invasion by foreign armies. and The Terror and Robespierre The • Committee of Public Safety was formed in April 1793 to fight foreign armies and hunt down enemies of the revolution. revolution. • Robespierre became one of the most controversial Jacobin figures because of Jacobin his loyalty to the revolution and his putting the terror into practice. the • Revolutionary tribunal and guillotine as the means of punishment; emergency powers established powers • “The first maxim of your policies must The be to lead the people by reason and the reason people’s enemies by terror….without virtue, terror is deadly; without terror, virtue is impotent.” virtue • For Robespierre, the goal of democracy required suppression of all dissent. required Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) The Republic of Virtue, 1793-1794 The • “Republicanize everything” • National anthem National • posters, pamphlets, souvenirs posters, • figure of Liberty figure • new money new • New plays New • Revolutionary festivals Revolutionary • De-Christianization De-Christianization •Education, free and compulsory for boys Education, and girls, but backfired for lack of teachers teachers • Tricolor Tricolor • Names for children Names • new calendar: 12 months, 30 days, 10new day weeks with 1 day off/week--not very day popular popular • metric system, still survives in most of metric still the world. the • Most French people resisted these new practices. Women and the Revolution Women • Majority of women were greatly disadvantaged under Old Regime Majority • Literacy and educational gender gap Literacy • Legal obedience to fathers and husbands Legal • No property rights, right of divorce, or rights over children No • No formal political rights No • Middle and upper class women better off Middle • Most literate, attend school, have tutors Most • Though education often in convents and mainly domestic skills Though • Privileged life of women at court and in salons Privileged • Intellectuals long debated rights of women Intellectuals • Many philosophes support women's education Many • Rousseau supported patriarch Rousseau • Women's roles in early Revolution Women's • Limited participation in pre-Revolutionary politics Limited • Role in uprisings and riots; the October Days Role • Role in counterrevolution especially prominent Role Women and the Revolution Women • Olympe de Gouges' "Declaration of the Rights of Women" (1791) Rights • She promoted woman’s suffrage. The Constitution gave that right only to men. • It also did not address key issues like • legal equality in marriage, • the right for a woman to divorce her spouse, • a woman’s right to property. • Throughout the document, it is apparent to the reader that Gouges had been influenced by the Enlightenment. by • Gains for women through Revolution Gains • Condorcet backs equality if women Condorcet • Legislature votes expanded women's rights rights • Gained property holdings, inheritance, divorce, children divorce, Women and the Rebvolution Women Charlotte Corday • During Terror, Revolution turned against women women • Repression of women's political clubs clubs • Many feminists arrested or guillotined guillotined • Jean-Paul Marat was a leading deputy who demanded more heads and blood. who • He was killed in his bath by Charlotte Corday in July 1793. • Corday felt it her duty to kill Marat. Corday • Marat became a martyr of the Revolution, and immortalized in the famous painting by Jacques-Louis David. famous • Napoleonic Code and Restoration of the monarchy remove most gains of the revolution revolution • But the Revolution stands as legacy for future feminist movements future Death of Marat, by Jacques-Louis David Counterrevolution and Revolt Counterrevolution • Revolts spread throughout France, including Vendée, where civil war broke out bewteen the “Catholic and Royal Army” and Revolutionaries. Revolutionaries. Fall of Robespierre and the End of the Terror, 1794-1799 and •The revolution also went against The dissenters within the Convention itself. dissenters • Robespierre’s enemy, Danton, favored moderation of the Terror. He was arrested and beheaded. was • “The Revolution was devouring its The own children,” said one member of the National Assembly. National • The number of deaths by guillotine in Paris jumped from 5 per day in the spring of 1794 to 26 per day by summer. summer. • Meanwhile, French armies were marching through the Austrian Netherlands. Netherlands. • Robespierre had made so many enemies that he could no longer afford to loosen the Terror. to • The Terror killed more than 40,000 people. people. “Thermidorian Reaction” • “Thermidorean Reaction”: reversal of Robespierre’s Thermidorean policies, release of hundreds of suspects, and made a truce in Vendée. in • In order to maintain control over both the radical left and the counter-revolutionary right, the Thermidoreans consolidated their power and began to limit democracy. their • Jacobins were purged within the convention Jacobins • Within a year the Revolutionary Tribunal was abolished. Within • In 1795, a new constitution was drafted, with a twoIn house legislature and an executive body, the Directory. • Between 1795 and 1799 the French Republic endured, but it continued to fight wars abroad. it • These wars would enable a general in the French army, Napoleon Bonaparte, to come to power, abolish the Republic, and establish a French empire with himself as its leader. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Napoleon • Napoleon came to power after leading campaigns in Italy in 1796leading 1797. • In 1798, the French government sent Napoleon to Egypt. Napoleon • They wanted to control trade by taking Egypt and cutting into British trade from India. Napoleon’s Army in Egypt, 1798 Napoleon’s Napoleon in Egypt Napoleon dreamed of reinventing the Roman Empire on French foundations. He took the ideals of the French Revolution—liberty, equality, fraternity—and claimed that his armies brought these ideas to oppressed peoples, and that they would embrace them openly. (first instance of Imperialism) In other words, he considered himself a liberator. But, in his experience in Egypt, Napoleon would find otherwise. But, The Directory of the French Republic in 1798 set aside plans for invading England, and instead chose to occupy Egypt in order to disrupt British trade from India. Napoleon used Egyptian animosity towards the Ottoman Empire, misleading them into thinking that he was fighting for Islam. misleading After defeating the Ottoman army at the Battle of the Pyramids in 1798, Napoleon was met with stiff determined resistance from the local Egyptian populations. Before being driven out of Egypt by the British navy, Napoleon stayed in Egypt long enough to disseminate Enlightenment and revolutionary ideas to the local population. the Napoleon Bonaparte and the French Empire Napoleon • In 1799, Napoleon arrived back in Paris to a disillusioned and war-torn government ready to abolish the constitution of 1795. government • Napoleon and his troops engineered a coup d’état that abolished the coup constitution, and established a three-man executive called the consulate, with Bonaparte as First Consul. with • Napoleon falsified votes to ratify a new constitution, and give the illusion of support for his regime. of • Within a year the French Revolution had ended, and a new authoritarian state was established. authoritarian • He reconciled with the Catholic church and nobles returned from exile. He • He resumed the centralization begun under Louis XIV. He • In 1804 he established the Napoleonic Code: Napoleonic • ensured property rights ensured • guaranteed religious freedom guaranteed • established a uniform legal system established • equal treatment for all adult males. equal • curtailed the few gains that women had achieved during the Revolution, and even abolished some rights they had under the Old Regime. Regime. Napoleon Bonaparte and the French Empire Napoleon • Napoleon envisioned a new Roman empire based on the principles he espoused in France espoused • His attempts to bring Europe under French rule laid the foundations for nineteenth-century nationalist strife nineteenth-century • Strong local resistance appeared in Spain, Germany, and Egypt • As locals in areas occupied by the French were tired of hearing that French ways w...
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