Unformatted text preview: Industrialization 1750-1914
• The Atlantic upheavals in the 18th century shattered the
old mercantilist system and encouraged economic
transformations that placed Western Europe at the
center of an increasingly connected world economy.
These transformations are often referred to as the
The period also generated what is called the “great
divide” between economically developed and less
developed parts of the world.
Britain and the United States were wealthier than other
parts of the world, and the British were able to translate
their economic power into global political power.
their Birth of Consumer Society
• Europe’s colonies produced new goods and the
growing European population produced greater
demand for these new goods.
– Population grew by 20% between 1700 and 1750
– Southern and Eastern European populations
recovered after the economic downturn of the 17th
– Urban areas grew the most.
– Between 1600 and 1750 London’s population tripled
and Paris’s doubled.
– The European population explosion was due to
falling death rates rather than increasing birth rates;
better weather and better harvests; and the
disappearance of the plague after 1720.
disappearance World Population
World Birth of Consumer Society
• Economic expansion and population growth
brought about a consumer revolution.
• 1672-1700, British imports of tobacco doubled.
• 1698-1733, sugar imports quadrupled in France.
• Tea, coffee and chocolate became necessities.
– By 1720, 9 million lbs. of tea had been imported
into England; by 1750, 37 million lbs.
– By 1700, England had 2,000 coffee houses; by
1740, every English country town had at least
– Cafés emerged at the end of the 17th century in
– Berlin opened its first coffee house in 1714. Birth of Consumer Society
Birth Origins and Early Development in
• Freed up labor to work in factories
• Market-oriented farming
• Advances in livestock breeding
• The enclosure movement
• Migration from country to city
--Why England/Great Britain first? Agricultural Revolution
• Rural changes had long-term effects in Europe.
• Revolution in agricultural techniques made it possible to
feed more people.
• 18th-century Britain saw agricultural output increase by
40%, as the population increased by 70%.
• 4 major changes in British agriculture:
– Increased land use by draining wetlands and using
previously unused lands.
– Farmers made more efficient use of larger plots of land.
– Livestock raising became closely tied to crop growing,
yields of both increased, eliminating crop rotation.
– Selective breeding and increased size and quality of
• New crops had a small effect
• By 1740s agricultural output increased dramatically and
food prices dropped.
food Agricultural Revolution
• In Britain, large landowners put pressure on small
farmers to sell their land. The large landowners
then fenced-in their property. This was called the
• It eliminated community grazing rights, and created
• By the end of 18th-century, 6 million acres had
been closed in.
• Small farmers then rented plots from larger
• British farming techniques spread to the Dutch
Republic and Austrian Netherlands, northern
France and western Germany.
• Most of central, southern, and eastern European
agriculture remained at the level of subsistence.
agriculture Agricultural Revolution
Agricultural • English painting showing enclosed farm fields. The peasant
farmer had largely disappeared from the English countryside.
• Significance: "The most important event in human
history." (Eric Hobsbawm)
Industrialization would eventually transform European
It began in England in the 18th century, and on the
Continent in the 19th century, according to four related
1. dramatic population increase, more than 50% in
England between 1750-1800.
2. increased output due to the introduction of steamdriven machinery.
3. Factories concentrated large numbers of urban
4. Cotton production outpaced wool ten times. European
Population Increases in the
Early 19th Century
Early 18th-Century Textile Industry
Overcoming bottlenecks in cotton textile production:
innovations in loom technology meant that fabrics could be
produced faster than the thread needed to make them. New
spinning machines were created to keep up with production.
• Kay's flying shuttle (1733)
• Hargreaves' spinning jenny (1764)
• Arkwright's water frame (1769)
• Cartwright's power loom (1784)
• Whitney's cotton gin (1794)
Innovations in textile manufacture increased British textile
output, indirectly contributing to French unemployment in the
1780s. British Textile Production
The basic purpose of
a hand loom is to
hold the warp
tension to facilitate
the interweaving of
the woof threads.
The precise shape of
the loom and its
mechanics may vary,
but the basic function
is the same.
is John Kay’s Flying Shuttle (1733)
the woof thread
across the warp
of by hand.
of The spinning jenny sped
up the process of
spinning thread for later
use in manufacturing
fabrics. James Hargreaves'
(1769) A powered
thread at home.
thread Edmund Cartwright’s
Power Loom (1784)
The power loom could
be run by a small boy
and yield 15 times the
output as a skilled adult
handloom Finnish power loom
factory in 1877
factory Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1794)
Eli Quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from the
seedpods and sticky seeds. It uses a combination of a wire
screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through the
screen, while brushes continuously remove the loose
cotton lint to prevent jams.
cotton Eli Whitney’s
Cotton Gin Patent
(March 14, 1794)
(March Origins and Early Development in
English industrialization and mechanization required
new sources of power and iron
• Expansion of water power
• Newcomen Engine (1711)
• James Watt develops modern steam engine
• Need for quality iron for machines
Need Origins and Early Development in
The first practical
device to harness the
power of steam to
engines were used
and Europe to pump
water out of mines
starting in the early
18th century, and were
the basis for James
Watt's later improved
versions. Watt Steam Engine
Watt Continental Industrialization
Continental Rise of the Railroad in 1830s
Rise Origins and Early Development in
New organization of labor: factory system Impact of the Industrial Revolution
• Vast restructuring of
• The increase of
peasants and workers
into cities created
urban social problems
• Relative decline of
• The relation between
industrial and urban
growth Rise of the Middle Class (“Bourgeoisie”)
19th century bourgeoisie
• Industrial entrepreneurs:
captains of industrial
• Bankers and financiers
• Managerial classes: the
• Engineers and scientists
• Bourgeois value system
• Hard work and frugality,
Protestant work ethic
• Moral restraint, delayed
gratification Bourgeois Ideology
• Political liberalism
• Revolution of 1830 (France)
• Reform Bill of 1832 (Britain) right to vote to middle
• Fear of "tyranny of majority": suffrage, property
• Economic liberalism
• Optimism: Laissez-faire (Optimistic view point,
free market, gov regulation should be minimized)
economics of Adam Smith
• Pessimism: "Iron law of wages" of David Ricardo:
the dismal science
the Creation of the Working Classes
• Reasons for urban growth are not clear. Historians
now think that it was due to increased birthrates rather
than mass migration.
• Working class came into being in the early 19th
century: factory workers who sold their labor: children,
women, decommissioned soldiers, former artisans
and skilled laborers.
• Decline of artisans( 職 職 ) and rural domestic system
• The Luddite riots (1811-12), fear of losing jobs to
• Life expectancy of a worker in Manchester, England
in 1840: 17 years old.
in Transformation of the Working Classes
Positive gains by the new working classes
• Need to compare with earlier life of peasants
• Long-term rise in standard of living: falling prices
• Greater possibilities of social mobility
• Greater access to social services and education
• Improvement in diets
Improvement Transformation of the Working Classes
Negative effects on working
• Unemployment: insecurity
of business cycle
• Deterioration of living
• Psychological toll:
• Child labor
• Short-term misery vs. longShort-term
term improvement Urbanization
Urbanization Urbanization Urbanization
• High concentrations of people were living in close proximity
to one another
• In Paris, 30,000 workers lived in lodging houses, 8 or 9
to a room, no separation of sexes.
• In an Irish quarter of London in 1847, 461 people lived
in 12 houses.
• Urban conditions were unhealthy for inhabitants
• Poor sanitation, human waste collected, polluted rivers
used for drinking water
• Rat infestation
• Disease, cholera (1830’s) epidemic
• Soot in the air
• In Paris, there was only enough water for one person to
bath twice per year.
bath POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES AND INTELLECTUAL
Ideology: a word coined by Count Destutt de Tracy
during the French Revolution; an ideal set of beliefs
about how a society’s social and political order
should be organized. • Conservatism
• The French Revolution showed that the old
orders could be toppled.
• After 1815, the disillusionment with the revolution
allowed for the reestablishment of monarchies, but
now their authority did not seem so natural and
permanent as they once had.
• The political doctrine that justified the restoration
was called conservatism.
• They argued that the Enlightenment led to the
Revolution which led to the Terror which led to
Napoleon. EDMUND BURKE (ENGLISH, 1729-1799)
• Criticized the French
Revolutionaries for thinking they
could create a new society based on
• He claimed that government had to
be based in long experience, with
gradual change, and respect for
• Religious and other major
institutional authorities such as the
church, state, and the family, were
essential to the foundation of any
• Faith, sentiment, history, and
tradition should replace the failures
of reason and individual rights.
of CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM
• The conservative Congress of Vienna disappointed those
who were looking for constitutional reform and national
• In Latin America revolts for national independence
succeeded through Simon Bolivar.
• In 1814, Spanish soldiers demanded that Ferdinand VII
adhere to the Spanish constitution of 1812.
• Naples and Piedmont-Sardinia also rebelled in the name
of constitutional government.
• In 1821 the Austrians defeated the rebels in Piedmont
• Demands for constitutionalism also surfaced in Russia in
when Alexander I died in 1825.
when CHALLENGES TO
CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM
• The Ottoman Turks faced challenges in the
• Serbia gained independence in 1817.
• Greeks revolted in 1821 and 1822,
killing every Turk who did not escape.
• Western opinion turned against the
Turks because Greece was the ancient
home of Western Civilization.
• In 1827, a coalition of British, French
and Russian ships destroyed the Turkish
• In 1828, Russia declared war on the
• Treaty of Adrianople (1829) gave
Russia dominion over the Danubian
• in 1833, Otto I became king of Greece.
• Origins lie in John Locke, and Adam Smith and the
• Opposed to conservatism at one end, and leftist radicalism
on the other.
• Support Enlightenment ideals of constitutionalism,
individual liberty, economic free trade; political and
economic freedom translates into social improvement and
• Opposed the violence of the French Terror, but supported
the Industrial Revolution
• Made up of Middle class merchants, manufacturers, and
professionals. JEREMY BENTHAM (ENGLISH, 1748-1832)
• His brand of liberalism was
• The best policy is one that
produces “the greatest good for
the greatest number.”
• He proposed elaborate
reforms of almost all British
institutions, including a new
model for a prison called a
panopticon, where inmates are
supervised and rehabilitated
rather than punished.
• He supported the abolitionist
movement. BRITISH REFORM BILL OF 1832
• British liberals pushed for an expansion of the electorate to include a
greater proportion of the middle class population, and tp repeal the Corn
Laws which were tariffs on the import of foreign grain.
• When the Tories in Parliament resisted the electoral reform, the liberals
organized mass demonstrations.
• The Reform Bill passed after the King intervened.
• the number of male voters increased by 50%, only 1 in 5 Britons could
vote and they had to be property owners.
• Yet, the bill gave new representation to the industrial north of England
and set a precedent for future suffrage.
• The Anti-Corn Law League was established in order to resist tariffs on
grain imports. They published a journal called The Economist.
• In 1846, with support from a Tory Prime Minister, the Corn laws were
• Liberalism had less appeal on the Continent than it did in Britain because
industrialization was slower there.
• Liberal reforms were promoted in France, Prussia, Austria, Hungary, and
• Socialism followed where Liberalism left off. They
argued that the liberties advocated by Liberalism only
benefited the middle class, at the expense of the
• Rather than reform they wanted a total
transformation of society that would abolish the
classes of capitalists and workers.
• Socialists were critical of Industrialization for
creating urban conditions of misery and exploitation.
• Utopian socialists believed that society would
benefit if all of its members gave up the ownership of
• They aimed at harmony and social cooperation. ROBERT OWEN (ENGLISH, 1771-1858)
• Founder of British Socialism
• He built a factory in Scotland
where workers labored for
only ten hours per day.
• He moved to the US and
established a commune in
Indiana called New Harmony.
It failed after three years due
to internal conflicts.
• His writings inspired
cooperatives and trade
unions. CLAUDE HENRI DE SAINT-SIMON
• A noble who had served
in the American War of
Simon coined the terms
industrialist to define the
new economic order.
• He believed that
industrial work should not
be controlled by
politicians, but by
artists, and industrialists.
artists, CHARLES FOURIER (FRENCH, 1772-1837)
• A salesman for a Lyon cloth
merchant, Fourier urged the
creation of communities that
were part garden city and part
• All jobs were to be rotated
for maximum happiness.
• The emancipation of women
was essential to Fourier’s
vision: “The extension of
privileges to women is the
fundamental cause of all
social FLORA TRISTAN (FRENCH, 1801-1844)
• Activist who devoted herself to
the reconciliation male and
• She was motivated by the
conditions of London’s poor.
• She published books and
pamphlets urging male workers
to address the unequal status of
• “The emancipation of male
workers is impossible so long as
women remain in a degraded
state.” ÉTIENNE CABET (FRENCH, 1788-1856)
• Socialist who coined the
emphasizing the communal
ownership of property.
• In 1840, he published
Travels in Icaria describing
a communist experiment
where a popularly elected
organized work, reduced
the workday to 7 hours,
and made work “short,
easy, and attractive.”
easy, KARL MARX (GERMAN, 1818-1883)
• Socialist writer and theorist whose work would
produce an unprecedented intellectual and
political earthquake over the next 150 years.
• Marx was a follower of the Prussian philosopher
Hegel, whose idea of history as a progressive
series of rational stages was inspired by
Napoleonic Wars. Unlike Hegel, who argued that
later stages of history subsumed earlier ones
leading to an absolute spiritual existence at the
end of history, Marx argued for a materialist
history where the stages lead from feudalism to
capitalism to communism. In the communist
state, the contradictions of the class struggles of
industrial capitalism are finally ended.
• For Marx, the class of industrial workers is
called the proletariat.
• The increasing contradictions of industrial capitalism would
eventually come to a crisis where the workers would then initiate
a proletarian revolution leading to the overthrow of the capitalist
system, the abolition of classes, and the collective ownership of
the means of production.
• Marx wrote very little on communism, however, and spent
most of his later years in Paris and London researching and
writing on capitalism, which culminated in the monumental multiwriting
volume work titled Das Kapital.
• In the Communist Manifesto, co-written with Friedrich Engels,
they argue that a proletarian revolution is inevitable as industrial
capitalism spreads across the globe.
• “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They
have a world to win”
• “Workingmen of all countries unite!” EUROPE IN
1830 RETURN OF THE BOURBON FAMILY
• In 1814, Louis XVIII was granted the
French crown, reestablishing the
Bourbon dynasty. He tried to maintain a
sense of continuity by retaining the
Napoleonic Code, and allowing for those
who purchased church lands after 1789
to keep their property.
• Louis XVIII’s opponents were called
Ultras, and they wanted France to
abandon its revolutionary past. After
Louis’s nephew was killed in 1820, the
Ultras demanded even more
• In 1824, Charles X succeeded Louis
XVII and gave nobles back much of the
land they had lost since 1789.
• Charles X’s conservative policies led to
demonstrations in Paris in July 1830.
demonstrations Louis XVIII
(r.1814-1824) Charles X
(r.1824-1830) JULY REVOLUTION OF 1830
• Between July 26-29, fighting broke out in Paris.
Citizen rebels built barricades to stop the movement of
• 500 citizens and 150 soldiers were killed.
• After three days of fighting, and fearing a return of the
republic, a group of moderate liberals agreed to give
the crown to the Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe, the
cousin of Charles X.
cousin JULY MONARCHY OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE, 1830-1848
• Charles X went into exile in
• He instituted new political and
voting rights, but less than 6% of
men could vote, and did little for
the workers who manned the
• In 1831 in Lyon, a revolt of silkIn
workers was crushed by the
• The July Revolution succeeded in
preventing those who wanted to
restore France to its pre-1789
social and political structure. But, it
failed to go any further than
establishing a liberal, constitutional
monarchy. Louis-Philippe (r.1830-1848)
Louis-Philippe BELGIUM 1830
• The Belgians had been
annexed by the Kingdom of
Netherlands in 1815 as part
of the Vienna agreement.
• Influenced by their own
differences from the Dutch
religion), and the July
Revolution in Paris, the
• King William of
Netherlands appealed to
the European powers for
help. But, a conference of
France, Britain, Russia,
Austria and Prussia agreed
to Belgian independence.
to POLAND 1830
• Poland was placed under Russian rule in
the Vienna settlement of 1815.
• Tsar Alexander I granted Poland one of
the most liberal constitutions in Europe in
• In the 1820s, Alexander’s policies
became more conservative, and he often
clashed with his Polish subjects.
• With the accession of Nicholas I in 1825,
tensions between Russians and Poles
• In November 1830, a group of cadets
and students revolted after rumors that
the Tsar was about to march into Belgium
• After the departure of Duke Constantine,
Alexander’s brother who also commanded
the Polish army, a provisional government
was set up.
was POLAND 1830
• Divisions within the revolutionaries led to internal conflicts, plus the peasant majority did not support the revolution.
• The revolutionaries counted on British and French support, as they had for the
Belgians. But in September 1831, Nicholas sent troops into Poland and captured
Warsaw, ending the revolution. EUROPEAN REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
EUROPEAN FRENCH DISCONTENT IN THE 1840S
• In the late 1840s, crop failures led to food
shortages and high prices.
• Overpopulation led to famine in some places
such as Ireland where an airborne blight
destroyed the potato crop in 1846, 1848, 1851.
The potato was the staple food source of the Irish.
1 in 8 people died of starvation and disease.
Many Irish by the thousands emigrated to the
England, Canada, and the United States.
• The period was also marked by increasing
unemployment: wages rose 5.5% in the 1830s;
10.5% in the 1840s; but the cost of living
increased by 16% each decade.
• Friedrich Engels described the urban workers of
this period as “the most miserable class that
sneaked its way into history.”
• In France, Louis-Philippe blocked electoral
reform and outlawed the banquet campaign
sponsored by his opposition.
sponsored 1848 REVOLUTION IN FRANCE
• On February 22, 1848, opponents of the government took to the streets
• By Feb. 24, 1500 barricades had been erected throughout Paris.
• Faced with growing discontent, Louis-Philippe abdicated and fled to
• The first four months of the Second Republic of France was marked by a
divergence between moderate republicans who had the support of the
majority in France, and radical republicans who had the support of the
Parisian working class.
• In the aftermath of the February Revolution, national workshops were
established to ease the unemployment problem, but they were designed
more to immobilize conflict rather than put people to work.
• Elections to the National Assembly further frustrated efforts by workers
to gain political power, as the largely conservative rural population elected
representatives who opposed workers’ rights.
representatives 1848 REVOLUTION IN FRANCE
• In May workers again took to the streets and declared their own provisional
government. But the established government was far more organized than it
had been in the waning days of Louis-Philippe.
• On June 22, the national workshops were abolished out of a growing fear of
leftist rebellion. The government mobilized the army. The leftists refused to
disband and took up arms.
• For three days Paris witnessed some of the bloodiest violence in the 19th
century. • Unlike in February, where
workers and bourgeoisie fought
side by side against the July
Monarchy, now workers and
bourgeoisie fought against one
• At the end of the June Days,
10,000 people were killed;
11,000 were arrested and sent to
Conclusion As in the political upheavals in the Atlantic world,
industrialization also transformed the ways in which
Europeans saw themselves and the world around them.
Europeans European colonies continued to supply resources for
the expanding European markets.
the Pressures increased on indigenous populations due to
colonialism and on Euopean factory workers.
colonialism Eventually these pressures erupted in violence in the
colonies and new political upheavals by the European
Terms Enclosure Movement
Enclosure Newcomen Engine bourgeoisie
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