Lecture 8 industrialization

Lecture 8 industrialization - Industrialization 1750-1914...

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Unformatted text preview: Industrialization 1750-1914 Industrialization Industrialization Industrialization • • • • The Atlantic upheavals in the 18th century shattered the The old mercantilist system and encouraged economic transformations that placed Western Europe at the center of an increasingly connected world economy. center These transformations are often referred to as the These “Industrial Revolution”. “Industrial The period also generated what is called the “great The divide” between economically developed and less developed parts of the world. developed Britain and the United States were wealthier than other Britain parts of the world, and the British were able to translate their economic power into global political power. their Birth of Consumer Society Birth • Europe’s colonies produced new goods and the Europe’s growing European population produced greater demand for these new goods. demand – Population grew by 20% between 1700 and 1750 – Southern and Eastern European populations Southern recovered after the economic downturn of the 17th century. century. – Urban areas grew the most. – Between 1600 and 1750 London’s population tripled Between and Paris’s doubled. and – The European population explosion was due to The falling death rates rather than increasing birth rates; better weather and better harvests; and the disappearance of the plague after 1720. disappearance World Population World Birth of Consumer Society Birth • Economic expansion and population growth Economic brought about a consumer revolution. brought • 1672-1700, British imports of tobacco doubled. • 1698-1733, sugar imports quadrupled in France. • Tea, coffee and chocolate became necessities. – By 1720, 9 million lbs. of tea had been imported By into England; by 1750, 37 million lbs. into – By 1700, England had 2,000 coffee houses; by By 1740, every English country town had at least two. two. – Cafés emerged at the end of the 17th century in Cafés Paris. Paris. – Berlin opened its first coffee house in 1714. Birth of Consumer Society Birth Origins and Early Development in Great Britain Great Agricultural Revolution • Freed up labor to work in factories Freed • Market-oriented farming Market-oriented • Advances in livestock breeding Advances • The enclosure movement The • Migration from country to city Migration --Why England/Great Britain first? Agricultural Revolution Agricultural • Rural changes had long-term effects in Europe. • Revolution in agricultural techniques made it possible to Revolution feed more people. feed • 18th-century Britain saw agricultural output increase by 18th-century 40%, as the population increased by 70%. 40%, • 4 major changes in British agriculture: – Increased land use by draining wetlands and using Increased previously unused lands. previously – Farmers made more efficient use of larger plots of land. – Livestock raising became closely tied to crop growing, Livestock yields of both increased, eliminating crop rotation. yields – Selective breeding and increased size and quality of Selective herds. herds. • New crops had a small effect • By 1740s agricultural output increased dramatically and By food prices dropped. food Agricultural Revolution Agricultural • In Britain, large landowners put pressure on small In farmers to sell their land. The large landowners then fenced-in their property. This was called the “enclosure movement.” “enclosure • It eliminated community grazing rights, and created It conflicts. conflicts. • By the end of 18th-century, 6 million acres had By been closed in. been • Small farmers then rented plots from larger Small landowners. landowners. • British farming techniques spread to the Dutch British Republic and Austrian Netherlands, northern France and western Germany. France • Most of central, southern, and eastern European Most agriculture remained at the level of subsistence. agriculture Agricultural Revolution Agricultural • English painting showing enclosed farm fields. The peasant farmer had largely disappeared from the English countryside. farmer Industrialization Industrialization • • • Significance: "The most important event in human Significance: history." (Eric Hobsbawm) history." Industrialization would eventually transform European Industrialization society. society. It began in England in the 18th century, and on the It Continent in the 19th century, according to four related trends: trends: 1. dramatic population increase, more than 50% in dramatic England between 1750-1800. England 2. increased output due to the introduction of steamdriven machinery. 3. Factories concentrated large numbers of urban Factories workers. workers. 4. Cotton production outpaced wool ten times. European European Population Increases in the Population Early 19th Century Early 18th-Century Textile Industry 18th-Century Overcoming bottlenecks in cotton textile production: Overcoming innovations in loom technology meant that fabrics could be produced faster than the thread needed to make them. New spinning machines were created to keep up with production. spinning • Kay's flying shuttle (1733) Kay's • Hargreaves' spinning jenny (1764) Hargreaves' • Arkwright's water frame (1769) Arkwright's • Cartwright's power loom (1784) Cartwright's • Whitney's cotton gin (1794) Whitney's Innovations in textile manufacture increased British textile Innovations output, indirectly contributing to French unemployment in the 1780s. 1780s. British Textile Production British Handloom Handloom The basic purpose of The a hand loom is to hold the warp warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the woof threads. woof The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same. is John Kay’s Flying Shuttle (1733) John The flying The shuttle allowed the woof thread woof to be mechanically woven across the warp warp threads, instead of by hand. of The spinning jenny sped The up the process of spinning thread for later use in manufacturing fabrics. fabrics. James Hargreaves' Spinning Jenny (1764) (1764) Arkwright’s Water Frame Water (1769) A powered powered spinning jenny replaced thousands of English women hand-spinning thread at home. thread Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom (1784) Power The power loom could The be run by a small boy and yield 15 times the output as a skilled adult handloom operator. handloom Finnish power loom Finnish factory in 1877 factory Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1794) Eli Quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from the Quickly seedpods and sticky seeds. It uses a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through the screen, while brushes continuously remove the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. cotton Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin Patent (March 14, 1794) (March Origins and Early Development in Great Britain Great English industrialization and mechanization required English new sources of power and iron new • Expansion of water power Expansion • Newcomen Engine (1711) Newcomen • James Watt develops modern steam engine (Birmingham, 1780s) (Birmingham, • Need for quality iron for machines Need Origins and Early Development in Great Britain Great Newcomen Engine (1711) Engine The first practical The device to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work. Newcomen engines were used throughout England and Europe to pump water out of mines starting in the early 18th century, and were the basis for James Watt's later improved versions. versions. Watt Steam Engine Watt Continental Industrialization Continental Rise of the Railroad in 1830s Rise Origins and Early Development in Great Britain Great New organization of labor: factory system Impact of the Industrial Revolution Impact • Vast restructuring of social life social • The increase of peasants and workers into cities created urban social problems urban • Relative decline of the aristocracy the • The relation between industrial and urban growth growth Rise of the Middle Class (“Bourgeoisie”) Rise 19th century bourgeoisie 19th • Industrial entrepreneurs: captains of industrial capitalism capitalism • Bankers and financiers Bankers • Managerial classes: the industrial bureaucracy industrial • Engineers and scientists Engineers • Bourgeois value system Bourgeois • Hard work and frugality, Protestant work ethic Protestant • Moral restraint, delayed gratification gratification Bourgeois Ideology Bourgeois • Political liberalism Political • Revolution of 1830 (France) Revolution • Reform Bill of 1832 (Britain) right to vote to middle class men. class • Fear of "tyranny of majority": suffrage, property qualifications • Economic liberalism Economic • Optimism: Laissez-faire (Optimistic view point, free market, gov regulation should be minimized) economics of Adam Smith economics • Pessimism: "Iron law of wages" of David Ricardo: the dismal science the Creation of the Working Classes Creation • Reasons for urban growth are not clear. Historians now think that it was due to increased birthrates rather than mass migration. than • Working class came into being in the early 19th century: factory workers who sold their labor: children, women, decommissioned soldiers, former artisans and skilled laborers. and • Decline of artisans( 職 職 ) and rural domestic system Decline • The Luddite riots (1811-12), fear of losing jobs to machines machines • Life expectancy of a worker in Manchester, England in 1840: 17 years old. in Transformation of the Working Classes Transformation Positive gains by the new working classes • Need to compare with earlier life of peasants Need • Long-term rise in standard of living: falling prices Long-term • Greater possibilities of social mobility Greater • Greater access to social services and education Greater • Improvement in diets Improvement Transformation of the Working Classes Transformation Negative effects on working Negative classes classes • Unemployment: insecurity of business cycle of • Deterioration of living conditions conditions • Psychological toll: regimentation and disorientation: "alienation” disorientation: • Child labor Child • Short-term misery vs. longShort-term term improvement Urbanization Urbanization Urbanization Urbanization Urbanization • High concentrations of people were living in close proximity to one another to • In Paris, 30,000 workers lived in lodging houses, 8 or 9 to a room, no separation of sexes. to • In an Irish quarter of London in 1847, 461 people lived in 12 houses. in • Urban conditions were unhealthy for inhabitants Urban • Poor sanitation, human waste collected, polluted rivers used for drinking water used • Rat infestation Rat • Disease, cholera (1830’s) epidemic Disease, • Soot in the air Soot • In Paris, there was only enough water for one person to bath twice per year. bath POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES AND INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENTS 1800-1850 MOVEMENTS Ideology: a word coined by Count Destutt de Tracy word during the French Revolution; an ideal set of beliefs about how a society’s social and political order should be organized. • Conservatism Conservatism • Liberalism Liberalism • Socialism Socialism CONSERVATISM CONSERVATISM • The French Revolution showed that the old orders could be toppled. orders • After 1815, the disillusionment with the revolution allowed for the reestablishment of monarchies, but now their authority did not seem so natural and permanent as they once had. • The political doctrine that justified the restoration was called conservatism. conservatism • They argued that the Enlightenment led to the Revolution which led to the Terror which led to Napoleon. Napoleon. EDMUND BURKE (ENGLISH, 1729-1799) EDMUND • Criticized the French Revolutionaries for thinking they could create a new society based on reason. reason. • He claimed that government had to be based in long experience, with gradual change, and respect for tradition. tradition. • Religious and other major institutional authorities such as the church, state, and the family, were essential to the foundation of any society. society. • Faith, sentiment, history, and tradition should replace the failures of reason and individual rights. of CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES • The conservative Congress of Vienna disappointed those who were looking for constitutional reform and national independence. independence. • In Latin America revolts for national independence succeeded through Simon Bolivar. succeeded • In 1814, Spanish soldiers demanded that Ferdinand VII adhere to the Spanish constitution of 1812. adhere • Naples and Piedmont-Sardinia also rebelled in the name of constitutional government. • In 1821 the Austrians defeated the rebels in Piedmont and Naples. and • Demands for constitutionalism also surfaced in Russia in when Alexander I died in 1825. when CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES • The Ottoman Turks faced challenges in the Balkans Balkans • Serbia gained independence in 1817. Serbia • Greeks revolted in 1821 and 1822, killing every Turk who did not escape. killing • Western opinion turned against the Turks because Greece was the ancient home of Western Civilization. home • In 1827, a coalition of British, French and Russian ships destroyed the Turkish fleet. fleet. • In 1828, Russia declared war on the Turks. • Treaty of Adrianople (1829) gave Russia dominion over the Danubian Principlaities. Principlaities. • in 1833, Otto I became king of Greece. in LIBERALISM LIBERALISM • Origins lie in John Locke, and Adam Smith and the Enlightenment. Enlightenment. • Opposed to conservatism at one end, and leftist radicalism on the other. on • Support Enlightenment ideals of constitutionalism, individual liberty, economic free trade; political and economic freedom translates into social improvement and economic growth. economic • Opposed the violence of the French Terror, but supported the Industrial Revolution the • Made up of Middle class merchants, manufacturers, and professionals. professionals. JEREMY BENTHAM (ENGLISH, 1748-1832) JEREMY • His brand of liberalism was called utilitarianism. called • The best policy is one that produces “the greatest good for the greatest number.” the • He proposed elaborate reforms of almost all British institutions, including a new model for a prison called a panopticon, where inmates are panopticon where supervised and rehabilitated rather than punished. rather • He supported the abolitionist movement. BRITISH REFORM BILL OF 1832 BRITISH • British liberals pushed for an expansion of the electorate to include a greater proportion of the middle class population, and tp repeal the Corn Laws which were tariffs on the import of foreign grain. Laws • When the Tories in Parliament resisted the electoral reform, the liberals organized mass demonstrations. organized • The Reform Bill passed after the King intervened. The • the number of male voters increased by 50%, only 1 in 5 Britons could vote and they had to be property owners. vote • Yet, the bill gave new representation to the industrial north of England and set a precedent for future suffrage. and • The Anti-Corn Law League was established in order to resist tariffs on grain imports. They published a journal called The Economist. The • In 1846, with support from a Tory Prime Minister, the Corn laws were repealed. repealed. • Liberalism had less appeal on the Continent than it did in Britain because industrialization was slower there. industrialization • Liberal reforms were promoted in France, Prussia, Austria, Hungary, and Russia Russia SOCIALISM SOCIALISM • Socialism followed where Liberalism left off. They argued that the liberties advocated by Liberalism only benefited the middle class, at the expense of the workers. workers. • Rather than reform they wanted a total transformation of society that would abolish the classes of capitalists and workers. classes • Socialists were critical of Industrialization for creating urban conditions of misery and exploitation. creating • Utopian socialists believed that society would benefit if all of its members gave up the ownership of private property. private • They aimed at harmony and social cooperation. ROBERT OWEN (ENGLISH, 1771-1858) ROBERT • Founder of British Socialism Founder • He built a factory in Scotland where workers labored for only ten hours per day. only • He moved to the US and established a commune in Indiana called New Harmony. It failed after three years due to internal conflicts. to • His writings inspired cooperatives and trade unions. unions. CLAUDE HENRI DE SAINT-SIMON (FRENCH, 1760-1825) (FRENCH, • A noble who had served in the American War of Independence, SaintIndependence, Simon coined the terms Simon industrialism and industrialism industrialist to define the industrialist new economic order. new • He believed that industrial work should not be controlled by politicians, but by scientists, engineers, artists, and industrialists. artists, CHARLES FOURIER (FRENCH, 1772-1837) CHARLES • A salesman for a Lyon cloth merchant, Fourier urged the creation of communities that were part garden city and part agricultural commune. agricultural • All jobs were to be rotated for maximum happiness. for • The emancipation of women was essential to Fourier’s vision: “The extension of privileges to women is the fundamental cause of all social progress.” social FLORA TRISTAN (FRENCH, 1801-1844) FLORA • Activist who devoted herself to the reconciliation male and female workers. female • She was motivated by the conditions of London’s poor. conditions • She published books and pamphlets urging male workers to address the unequal status of women women • “The emancipation of male The workers is impossible so long as women remain in a degraded state.” state.” ÉTIENNE CABET (FRENCH, 1788-1856) ÉTIENNE • Socialist who coined the term communist, communist emphasizing the communal ownership of property. ownership • In 1840, he published Travels in Icaria describing Travels a communist experiment where a popularly elected communist dictatorship organized work, reduced the workday to 7 hours, and made work “short, easy, and attractive.” easy, KARL MARX (GERMAN, 1818-1883) KARL • Socialist writer and theorist whose work would produce an unprecedented intellectual and political earthquake over the next 150 years. political • Marx was a follower of the Prussian philosopher Hegel, whose idea of history as a progressive series of rational stages was inspired by Napoleonic Wars. Unlike Hegel, who argued that later stages of history subsumed earlier ones leading to an absolute spiritual existence at the end of history, Marx argued for a materialist history where the stages lead from feudalism to capitalism to communism. In the communist state, the contradictions of the class struggles of industrial capitalism are finally ended. industrial • For Marx, the class of industrial workers is called the proletariat. proletariat MARXISM MARXISM • The increasing contradictions of industrial capitalism would eventually come to a crisis where the workers would then initiate a proletarian revolution leading to the overthrow of the capitalist system, the abolition of classes, and the collective ownership of the means of production. the • Marx wrote very little on communism, however, and spent most of his later years in Paris and London researching and writing on capitalism, which culminated in the monumental multiwriting volume work titled Das Kapital. volume Das • In the Communist Manifesto, co-written with Friedrich Engels, Communist co-written they argue that a proletarian revolution is inevitable as industrial capitalism spreads across the globe. capitalism • “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They The have a world to win” have • “Workingmen of all countries unite!” EUROPE IN 1830 1830 RETURN OF THE BOURBON FAMILY RETURN • In 1814, Louis XVIII was granted the French crown, reestablishing the Bourbon dynasty. He tried to maintain a sense of continuity by retaining the Napoleonic Code, and allowing for those who purchased church lands after 1789 to keep their property. to • Louis XVIII’s opponents were called Ultras, and they wanted France to abandon its revolutionary past. After Louis’s nephew was killed in 1820, the Ultras demanded even more conservative policies. conservative • In 1824, Charles X succeeded Louis XVII and gave nobles back much of the land they had lost since 1789. land • Charles X’s conservative policies led to demonstrations in Paris in July 1830. demonstrations Louis XVIII Louis (r.1814-1824) (r.1814-1824) Charles X Charles (r.1824-1830) (r.1824-1830) JULY REVOLUTION OF 1830 JULY • Between July 26-29, fighting broke out in Paris. Citizen rebels built barricades to stop the movement of soldiers. • 500 citizens and 150 soldiers were killed. • After three days of fighting, and fearing a return of the republic, a group of moderate liberals agreed to give the crown to the Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe, the cousin of Charles X. cousin JULY MONARCHY OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE, 1830-1848 JULY • Charles X went into exile in Britain. Britain. • He instituted new political and voting rights, but less than 6% of men could vote, and did little for the workers who manned the barricades. barricades. • In 1831 in Lyon, a revolt of silkIn workers was crushed by the workers military. military. • The July Revolution succeeded in preventing those who wanted to restore France to its pre-1789 social and political structure. But, it failed to go any further than establishing a liberal, constitutional monarchy. monarchy. Louis-Philippe (r.1830-1848) Louis-Philippe BELGIUM 1830 BELGIUM • The Belgians had been annexed by the Kingdom of Netherlands in 1815 as part of the Vienna agreement. of • Influenced by their own differences from the Dutch (traditions, language, religion), and the July Revolution in Paris, the Belgians revolted. Belgians • King William of Netherlands appealed to the European powers for help. But, a conference of France, Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia agreed to Belgian independence. to POLAND 1830 POLAND • Poland was placed under Russian rule in the Vienna settlement of 1815. the • Tsar Alexander I granted Poland one of the most liberal constitutions in Europe in 1818. 1818. • In the 1820s, Alexander’s policies became more conservative, and he often clashed with his Polish subjects. clashed • With the accession of Nicholas I in 1825, tensions between Russians and Poles increased. increased. • In November 1830, a group of cadets and students revolted after rumors that the Tsar was about to march into Belgium and France. and • After the departure of Duke Constantine, Alexander’s brother who also commanded the Polish army, a provisional government was set up. was POLAND 1830 POLAND • Divisions within the revolutionaries led to internal conflicts, plus the peasant majority did not support the revolution. did • The revolutionaries counted on British and French support, as they had for the Belgians. But in September 1831, Nicholas sent troops into Poland and captured Warsaw, ending the revolution. EUROPEAN REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 EUROPEAN FRENCH DISCONTENT IN THE 1840S FRENCH • In the late 1840s, crop failures led to food shortages and high prices. shortages • Overpopulation led to famine in some places such as Ireland where an airborne blight destroyed the potato crop in 1846, 1848, 1851. The potato was the staple food source of the Irish. 1 in 8 people died of starvation and disease. Many Irish by the thousands emigrated to the England, Canada, and the United States. England, • The period was also marked by increasing unemployment: wages rose 5.5% in the 1830s; 10.5% in the 1840s; but the cost of living increased by 16% each decade. increased • Friedrich Engels described the urban workers of this period as “the most miserable class that sneaked its way into history.” sneaked • In France, Louis-Philippe blocked electoral reform and outlawed the banquet campaign sponsored by his opposition. sponsored 1848 REVOLUTION IN FRANCE 1848 • On February 22, 1848, opponents of the government took to the streets in protest. in • By Feb. 24, 1500 barricades had been erected throughout Paris. By • Faced with growing discontent, Louis-Philippe abdicated and fled to England. England. • The first four months of the Second Republic of France was marked by a divergence between moderate republicans who had the support of the majority in France, and radical republicans who had the support of the Parisian working class. Parisian • In the aftermath of the February Revolution, national workshops were established to ease the unemployment problem, but they were designed more to immobilize conflict rather than put people to work. more • Elections to the National Assembly further frustrated efforts by workers to gain political power, as the largely conservative rural population elected representatives who opposed workers’ rights. representatives 1848 REVOLUTION IN FRANCE 1848 • In May workers again took to the streets and declared their own provisional government. But the established government was far more organized than it had been in the waning days of Louis-Philippe. had • On June 22, the national workshops were abolished out of a growing fear of leftist rebellion. The government mobilized the army. The leftists refused to disband and took up arms. disband • For three days Paris witnessed some of the bloodiest violence in the 19th century. century. • Unlike in February, where workers and bourgeoisie fought side by side against the July Monarchy, now workers and bourgeoisie fought against one another. another. • At the end of the June Days, 10,000 people were killed; 11,000 were arrested and sent to Algeria. Algeria. Conclusion Conclusion As in the political upheavals in the Atlantic world, industrialization also transformed the ways in which Europeans saw themselves and the world around them. Europeans European colonies continued to supply resources for the expanding European markets. the Pressures increased on indigenous populations due to colonialism and on Euopean factory workers. colonialism Eventually these pressures erupted in violence in the colonies and new political upheavals by the European working classes. working Terms Terms Enclosure Movement Enclosure Newcomen Engine bourgeoisie bourgeoisie conservatism conservatism liberalism liberalism socialism socialism ...
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