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Unformatted text preview: Internal Troubles, External
Threats, REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE
• Throughout the nineteenth century, a new global order
emerged based on the ideas of the French and American
revolutions, laissez-faire capitalism, the nation-state, new
technologies, and industrial organizations.
• Its triumph was not preordained. In various areas and
among diverse peoples, alternative movements
periodically surfaced to challenge this future.
• These rebellions, whether they emanated from political
radicals, charismatic prophets, peasant movements, or
anti-imperialist insurgents, developed counter-visions to
the emerging status quo.
• The conflict over the future, in many ways, was the
distinguishing feature of world history during this century.
distinguishing REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE
REACTIONS • Everywhere the transformations of the late
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries upset
people’s lives and established ways
• In Europe, political and economic revolutions
overturned the old order
• In North America, the United States’ conquest
of lands and expansion upset Indian groups
• In Latin America, new nation-states struggled
to sustain order
• In Asia and Africa, rulers had to come to
terms with European economic and military
power REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE
REACTIONS • Dissidents in all areas emerged to propose
alternative scenarios that drew upon their own
traditions as well as their contacts with outside
• In one pattern, particularly in the Islamic Middle
East, Islamic Africa, non-Islamic Africa, and
China, alternative perspectives were shaped by
the disruption of European commerce
• These areas saw the emergence of leaders who
believed that their own traditions required
rejuvenation REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE
REACTIONS • In another pattern, mainly in Europe and the
Americas, utopians and radicals envisioned more
equitable rearrangements to the order created by
the industrial and political revolutions
• The most radical envisioned a socialist
• The third pattern emerged among the colonized
• Indigenous peoples in the Americas and
South Asia struggled to defend their traditional
worlds FOUR SIMILARITIES OF ALTERNATIVE
MOVEMENTS • All of them opposed some form of
• They were steeped in local historical and
• They advocated new political and social
• They either took place far from the center
of the new order or were led by people on
the PROPHECY AND REVITALIZATION IN THE
ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA
• The era of Islamic expansion and
the flowering of the Ottoman,
Safavid, and Mughal empires were
• European power encroached
upon the Islamic world
• Prophets emerged who urged
revival and restoration of
• Non-Islamic Africa was also
transformed by the new
emerging European trading
regime and also witnessed the
rise of charismatic leaders who
drew strength from spiritual and
magical ISLAMIC REVITALIZATION
ISLAMIC • Movements to revitalize Islam took place on the
• Muhammad Ibn abd al-Wahhab preached
that the local population of the Najd region of
the Arabian peninsula had become too
religiously lax in the late eighteenth century
• Wahhabism swept across the peninsula
• Followers sacked Shiite shrines and overtook
the holy cities of Mecca and Medina
• The Ottomans used Muhammad Ali of Egypt
and his army to put down the revolt
and ISLAMIC REVITALIZATION
ISLAMIC • Dan Fodio and the Fulani
• Muslim revolts emerged in West Africa in the late
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
• The Fulani people sought to recreate a purer
• The Fulani Muslim cleric and prophet Usman dan
Fodio created a vast empire
• He waged jihad against unbelievers
• He especially targeted Hausa rulers deemed too
lax in their religion and too tolerant of
nonbelievers ISLAMIC REVITALIZATION
• Fulani women of North
Nigeria made critical
contributions to religious
• Men expected women to
be modest but to support
• Best-known female
Muslim leader was Nana
• Eventually a new state
Sokoto Caliphate—that avidly
promoted the growth of Islam ABI AL-QASIM AND ZAYNAB IN ALGERIA
ABI Claiming that the Algerians offended a French envoy, France invaded Algeria in
1830. In no part of the Islamic world was opposition to European domination stronger than
in The rebellion of Amir ‘Abd al-Qādir in 1830 and the revolt of 1849. The French
ruthlessly repressed both revolts.
ruthlessly Algerian Muslims learned to use more subtle means to resist French authority.
Algerian Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abi al-Qasim (1823-1897) was a leader of the Sufi
Brotherhood from the Atlas Mountains and who provided a safe haven for those
Algerians who did not want to live directly under French rule. He became very popular.
Algerians When he became ill, a struggle for his successor ensued. The French supported his
male cousin over his daughter Zaynab (1850-1904), assuming Islamic preference for
patriarchies. The French underestimated Zaynab’s power and influence. When alpatriarchies.
Qasim died in 1897, the French found themselves in opposition to a powerful Algerian
woman—the French had never been opposed by a woman leader before.
woman—the She was pious, celibate, knew her father’s teachings very well, and was strongly
opposed to the French. She earned the trust and loyalties of Algerians.
opposed She was willing to contest French power more directly than her father. In spite of this, the French occupation of Algeria would last until 1962 when they
were driven out by war.
were MOROCCO AND FRANCE In 1830, as the French were invading and occupying Algeria, the
Moroccans were concerned that a Christian power was now on their border,
and felt threatened by invasion. They had known European invaders before,
such as Spaniards from the Iberian Peninsula, but they had enjoyed little
contact with Europe since the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
contact Sultan Mulay ‘Abd ar-Rahmān (1822-1859) was drawn into the FrenchSultan
Algerian struggle when he offered arms and supplies to an Algerian
resistance fighter, Amir ‘Abd al-Qādir.
dir. In 1841, Amir hid inside Morocco’s borders as the French were after him. In August 1844, the French navy bombarded Tangier and Mogador, and
invaded Morocco, destroying a Moroccan army.
invaded The French wanted peace with Morocco but on their own terms. Two
treaties solidified French success and the Moroccans suffered heavily.
treaties The Sultan had to agree to help find Amir, negotiate new borders, and had
to abandon his opposition to the French.
to In response to the French threat, and to a growing fascination with French
culture and science, the Sultan sent an ambassador to to Paris in 1845-1846.
culture CHARISMATIC MILITARY MEN
IN NON-ISLAMIC AFRICA
• In southern Africa,
in the early
the Mfecane revolt
• The Bantu
southern Africa had
grown to strain the
resources of the land CHARISMATIC MILITARY MEN
IN NON-ISLAMIC AFRICA
Shaka Zulu, son of a minor chief, possessed
great military and organizational skills, and
emerged to create a ruthless warrior state to
replace the modest chieftaincies
• He assimilated many conquered peoples
• Other peoples duplicated his efforts in
response to the threat his new state
• The states of Ndebele and Sotho
• Shaka’s power stemmed from the tradition of
“big men” in the area who emerged at times of
crisis and social
• Shaka and other leaders forged new
states and built new ethnic and kinship
ties using long-standing religious and
cultural symbols TAIPING REBELLION
TAIPING Though Europeans were
confined to 5 port cities, the
Qing government were
humiliated by their
presence. Most Chinese
peasants felt the
government had lost its
legitimacy, and thousands
rebelled. Land shortages, poverty,
opium addiction, and social
instability led to unrest.
instability The rebellion was rooted
in a long tradition of popular
religious revolts. TAIPING REBELLION
TAIPING In times of political upheaval, local religious
sects were able to turn small revolts into large
scale The Taiping rebellion began in southern
China and drew upon its allegiance to
Christianity, and they sought social and
economic Led by Hong Xiuquan, and his visions and
messianic dreams, the movement was sparked by
his open preaching and destruction of Confucian
symbols. Many of his followers came from the port cities
where Europeans had disrupted the traditional local
economies. But Hong’s anger was directed not at
the Europeans, but at the Qing government.
the By 1853, Taiping rebels had captured the city of
Nanjing TAIPING REBELLION Western governments also opposed the rebellion as a perversion of
Christianity. A foreign army eventually took part in the suppression of the
rebellion. Hong died defending the capital city in 1864.
Hong Like other rebellions in Africa, the Islamic world, the Taiping
Rebellion based its critique of the old order on a promise to restore
lost The rebellion weakened the central government, wasted agrarian
lands, drained the treasury, created waves of refugees, and created
local In the summer of 1898, Qing Emperor Guangxu tried to implement
reforms to address the rising social problems, modernize industry,
agriculture, commerce, education, and the military. His opponents
blocked the reforms and had him placed under house arrest.
blocked Boxer Rebellion, 1900
Boxer Chinese intellectuals political leaders developed a non-European
stance, while advocating European ideas and technology to
strengthen The most explosive response to these changes was the Boxer
Rebellion in 1900.
Rebellion After the deaths of two German missionaries killed by Chinese
residents, the German government demanded the right to construct
new cathedrals and open new ports.
new As tensions grew, martial arts groups became more politicized and
attacked missionaries and Chinese Christians. In 1899, several of these groups formed the “Boxers United in
Righteousness.” They believed that their divine protection rendered
themselves immune to all earthly weapons, including bullets.
themselves As the movement grew, the Qing tried to control the movement, but
failed in Beijing and Tianjin. Embracing the Boxers’ cause, Empress
Dowager declared war on foreign powers in June 1900. Boxer Rebellion, 1900
Boxer The Boxers attacked everything that
represented foreign cultures, including railroads,
telegraph lines, lamps and clocks.
telegraph In August 1900, a foreign army of 20,000
soldiers crushed the rebellion. About half of the
troops were from Japan. The others were from
Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and the US.
Russia, The Qing were force to sign the Boxer
Protocol, in which they paid indemnity for
foreign damage, about twice the annual income
of the Chinese empire. Although defeated, the Boxers showed how
far China had come since the Taiping uprising.
The Boxers were agrarian peasants and
resisted the inroads Europeans had been
making into China from the ports. The Boxers
remained loyal to the dynasty and showed that
mass resistance to European imperialism was
possible. Meiji Restoration Japan In the 1860s, Japanese rulers wanted to
make their country look like a modern nationmake
state. Since the early 17th century the Tokugawa
Shogunate kept contact with the West to a
minimum. But an American naval officer, Matthew
Perry, entered Edo bay in 1853, and along
with the Russian, Dutch, and British, forced
Japan’s leaders to accept humiliating treaties.
Japan’s Opened Japanese ports to the West
Opened Europeans were exempt from Japanese
laws. Limits were placed on Japanese tariffs.
Limits The Japanese responded by adopting
Western Meiji Restoration Japan In 1868, the reformers toppled the Tokugawa and promised to return Japan
to its mythic greatness.
to The Meiji Emperor Mutsuhito (r.1868-1912) became the symbol of the new
Japan, by forming new schools, promoting propaganda, creating a national
army, and promoting a national language and ethnic homogeneity.
army, The Meiji were successful in overcoming very old divisions in Japan
The One of their successes was in
economics. In 1871 they banned
the feudal structure, and rallied the
country around the Yen.
country “Rich country, strong army” was
the slogan of the Meiji.
the In 1889 it formed a constitution
based on the German model.
based By the end of the century, Japan
wanted to open up new markets for
its new industries.
its Meiji Restoration Japan The Meiji wanted to established large spheres of influence in
Asia against their European rivals.
Asia Unlike the British and Americans who trained locals to
administer their imperial holdings, The Meiji Japanese refused to
do the same when it conquered Okinawa in 1879, claiming the
Okinawans were unfit to rule themselves.
Okinawans In 1876 the Meiji set its sights on the Korean peninsula, which
one German advisor referred to as, “the dagger pointed at the
heart of Japan.”
heart Fearing an invasion of Korea, the Chinese went to war with
Japan between 1894-1895, the Sino-Japanese War in which the
Chinese suffered a humiliating defeat.
Chinese Its victory in China increased Meiji power, now with no equal in
Asia. Taiwan went to Japan as did Korea in 1910.
Asia. POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES AND INTELLECTUAL
Ideology: a word coined by Count Destutt de Tracy
during the French Revolution; an ideal set of beliefs
about how a society’s social and political order
should be organized. Conservatism
The French Revolution showed that the old
orders could be toppled.
• After 1815, the disillusionment with the
revolution allowed for the reestablishment of
monarchies, but now their authority did not
seem so natural and permanent as they
• The political doctrine that justified the
restoration was called conservatism.
• They argued that the Enlightenment led to
the Revolution which led to the Terror which
• EDMUND BURKE (ENGLISH, 1729-1799)
Criticized the French
Revolutionaries for thinking they
could create a new society
based on reason.
• He claimed that government
had to be based in long
experience, with gradual
change, and respect for
• Religious and other major
institutional authorities such as
the church, state, and the
family, were essential to the
foundation of any society.
• Faith, sentiment, history, and
tradition should replace the
• CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM
The conservative Congress of Vienna
disappointed those who were looking for
constitutional reform and national independence.
• In Latin America revolts for national
independence succeeded through Simon Bolivar.
• In 1814, Spanish soldiers demanded that
Ferdinand VII adhere to the Spanish constitution of
• Naples and Piedmont-Sardinia also rebelled in
the name of constitutional government.
• In 1821 the Austrians defeated the rebels in
Piedmont and Naples.
• Demands for constitutionalism also surfaced in
• CHALLENGES TO
CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM
The Ottoman Turks faced challenges
in the Balkans
• Serbia gained independence in
• Greeks revolted in 1821 and 1822,
killing every Turk who did not
• Western opinion turned against the
Turks because Greece was the
ancient home of Western
• In 1827, a coalition of British,
French and Russian ships destroyed
the Turkish fleet.
• In 1828, Russia declared war on
• Treaty of Adrianople (1829) gave
Russia dominion over the Danubian
Origins lie in John Locke, and Adam Smith and
• Opposed to conservatism at one end, and leftist
radicalism on the other.
• Support Enlightenment ideals of
constitutionalism, individual liberty, economic free
trade; political and economic freedom translates
into social improvement and economic growth.
• Opposed the violence of the French Terror, but
supported the Industrial Revolution
• Made up of Middle class merchants,
manufacturers, and professionals.
• JEREMY BENTHAM (ENGLISH, 1748-1832)
His brand of liberalism was
• The best policy is one
that produces “the
greatest good for the
• He proposed elaborate
reforms of almost all
including a new model for
a prison called a panopticon,
where inmates are supervised
and rehabilitated rather than
• He supported the
• BRITISH REFORM BILL OF 1832
British liberals pushed for an expansion of the electorate to include
a greater proportion of the middle class population, and tp repeal the
Corn Laws which were tariffs on the import of foreign grain.
• When the Tories in Parliament resisted the electoral reform, the
liberals organized mass demonstrations.
• • The Reform Bill passed after the King intervened.
The the number of male voters increased by 50%, only 1 in 5 Britons
could vote and they had to be property owners.
• Yet, the bill gave new representation to the industrial north of
England and set a precedent for future suffrage.
• The Anti-Corn Law League was established in order to resist tariffs
on grain imports. They published a journal called The Economist.
• In 1846, with support from a Tory Prime Minister, the Corn laws
• Liberalism had less appeal on the Continent than it did in Britain
because industrialization was slower there.
• Liberal reforms were promoted in France, Prussia, Austria, Hungary,
Socialism followed where Liberalism left off.
They argued that the liberties advocated by
Liberalism only benefited the middle class, at
the expense of the workers.
• Rather than reform they wanted a total
transformation of society that would abolish
the classes of capitalists and workers.
• Socialists were critical of Industrialization for
creating urban conditions of misery and
• Utopian socialists believed that society would
benefit if all of its members gave up the
ownership of private property.
• ROBERT OWEN (ENGLISH, 1771-1858)
Founder of British
• He built a factory in
Scotland where workers
labored for only ten hours
• He moved to the US and
established a commune
in Indiana called New
Harmony. It failed after
three years due to
• His writings inspired
cooperatives and trade
• CLAUDE HENRI DE SAINT-SIMON
A noble who had
served in the American
War of Independence,
Saint-Simon coined the
terms industrialism and
industrialist to define the
new economic order.
• He believed that
industrial work should
not be controlled by
politicians, but by
• CHARLES FOURIER (FRENCH, 1772-1837)
A salesman for a Lyon
cloth merchant, Fourier
urged the creation of
communities that were
part garden city and part
• All jobs were to be rotated
for maximum happiness.
• The emancipation of
women was essential to
Fourier’s vision: “The
extension of privileges to
women is the fundamental
cause of all social
• FLORA TRISTAN (FRENCH, 1801-1844)
Activist who devoted herself
to the reconciliation male and
• She was motivated by the
conditions of London’s poor.
• She published books and
pamphlets urging male
workers to address the
unequal status of women
• “The emancipation of male
workers is impossible so long
as women remain in a
• ÉTIENNE CABET (FRENCH, 1788-1856)
Socialist who coined
the term communist,
communal ownership of
• In 1840, he published
Travels in Icaria describing
experiment where a
reduced the workday to
• KARL MARX (GERMAN, 1818-1883)
Socialist writer and theorist whose work
would produce an unprecedented
intellectual and political earthquake over
the next 150 years.
• Marx was a follower of the Prussian
philosopher Hegel, whose idea of history
as a progressive series of rational stages
was inspired by Napoleonic Wars. Unlike
Hegel, who argued that later stages of
history subsumed earlier ones leading to
an absolute spiritual existence at the end
of history, Marx argued for a materialist
history where the stages lead from
feudalism to capitalism to communism.
In the communist state, the
contradictions of the class struggles of
industrial capitalism are finally ended.
The increasing contradictions of industrial capitalism
would eventually come to a crisis where the workers
would then initiate a proletarian revolution leading to
the overthrow of the capitalist system, the abolition of
classes, and the collective ownership of the means of
• Marx wrote very little on communism, however, and
spent most of his later years in Paris and London
researching and writing on capitalism, which
culminated in the monumental multi-volume work
titled Das Kapital.
• In the Communist Manifesto, co-written with Friedrich Engels,
they argue that a proletarian revolution is inevitable as industrial
capitalism spreads across the globe.
• “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their
• EUROPE IN
1830 RETURN OF THE BOURBON FAMILY
In 1814, Louis XVIII was granted
the French crown, reestablishing
the Bourbon dynasty. He tried to
maintain a sense of continuity by
retaining the Napoleonic Code,
and allowing for those who
purchased church lands after
1789 to keep their property.
• Louis XVIII
(r.1814-1824) Louis XVIII’s opponents were
called Ultras, and they wanted
France to abandon its
revolutionary past. After Louis’s
nephew was killed in 1820, the
Ultras demanded even more
• In 1824, Charles X succeeded
Louis XVII and gave nobles back
much of the land they had lost
• Charles X
(r.1824-1830) JULY REVOLUTION OF 1830
Between July 26-29, fighting broke out in
Paris. Citizen rebels built barricades to stop
the movement of soldiers.
• • 500 citizens and 150 soldiers were killed. After three days of fighting, and fearing a
return of the republic, a group of moderate
liberals agreed to give the crown to the Duke
of Orléans, Louis-Philippe, the cousin of
• JULY MONARCHY OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE, 1830-1848
Charles X went into exile in
• He instituted new political
and voting rights, but less than
6% of men could vote, and did
little for the workers who
manned the barricades.
• In 1831 in Lyon, a revolt of
silk-workers was crushed by
• The July Revolution
succeeded in preventing those
who wanted to restore France
to its pre-1789 social and
political structure. But, it
failed to go any further than
establishing a liberal,
• Louis-Philippe (r.1830-1848)
Louis-Philippe European Revolutions of 1848
European French Discontent in the 1840s
In the late 1840s, crop failures led to
food shortages and high prices.
• Overpopulation led to famine in some
places such as Ireland where an airborne
blight destroyed the potato crop in 1846,
1848, 1851. The potato was the staple
food source of the Irish. 1 in 8 people
died of starvation and disease. Many
Irish by the thousands emigrated to the
England, Canada, and the United States.
• The period was also marked by
increasing unemployment: wages rose
5.5% in the 1830s; 10.5% in the 1840s;
but the cost of living increased by 16%
• Friedrich Engels described the urban
workers of this period as “the most
miserable class that sneaked its way into
• In France, Louis-Philippe blocked
electoral reform and outlawed the
• 1848 Revolution in France
On February 22, 1848, opponents of the government took to
the streets in protest.
• By Feb. 24, 1500 barricades had been erected throughout Paris.
• Faced with growing discontent, Louis-Philippe abdicated and
fled to England.
• The first four months of the Second Republic of France was
marked by a divergence between moderate republicans who had
the support of the majority in France, and radical republicans
who had the support of the Parisian working class.
• In the aftermath of the February Revolution, national workshops
were established to ease the unemployment problem, but they
were designed more to immobilize conflict rather than put
people to work.
• Elections to the National Assembly further frustrated efforts by
workers to gain political power, as the largely conservative rural
population elected representatives who opposed workers’ rights.
• 1848 Revolution in France
In May workers again took to the streets and declared their own provisional
government. But the established government was far more organized than it
had been in the waning days of Louis-Philippe.
• On June 22, the national workshops were abolished out of a growing fear of
leftist rebellion. The government mobilized the army. The leftists refused to
disband and took up arms.
• For three days Paris witnessed some of the bloodiest violence in the 19th
• Unlike in February, where workers
and bourgeoisie fought side by side
against the July Monarchy, now
workers and bourgeoisie fought
against one another.
• At the end of the June Days, 10,000
people were killed; 11,000 were
arrested and sent to Algeria.
• 1848 Revolution in France
The June Days established a clear-cut victory for the moderate
republicans in the government, but it left great bitterness in the
working class. The June Days strengthened what came to be
known as the “Red Fear”: government policies directed at
subverting leftists and radical organizations.
• New legislation was introduced limiting freedom of the press,
rights to political associations, and outlawed secret societies.
• In the constitution that was completed in November, the power
of the president of the republic was increased in order to deal
effectively with future proletarian uprisings.
• Presidential elections were held in December. Returning from
exile in England was Charles Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, the
nephew of Napoleon I, to run as a candidate.
• He ran as a defender of order amidst the chaos of the past year.
• Initially not taken very seriously, he began to gain widespread
support largely because of his name.
• In contrast to the drab years of the July Monarchy under LouisIn
Philippe, Louis-Napoleon likened himself to his uncle and his
• Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III)
Louis-Napoleon won in a
• The republicans supported him
because they thought he would
obey them; royalists supported
him as a step towards restoring
the crown; workers supported him
because he was not associated
with the June Days.
• However, Louis-Napoleon’s
election meant the end of the
short-lived Second Republic.
• In 1852, he dissolved the
republic and declared himself,
Napoleon III, emperor of France.
• His reign lasted until the 1870
war with Prussia.
• Aftermath of the 1848 Revolutions
The widespread revolutions failed to achieve their goals of social
and political reform. But they left a imprint in Europe that would not
• The 2nd Republic in France, which lasted only 3 years, set the stage
for the long-lasting 3rd Republic born in 1870.
• In Italy, the failure of unification in 1848 did not stop the national
unification movement, which then gained more momentum as it
demanded greater democratic involvement of the population. Italy
will unify in 1870.
• In the German states popular nationalist movements increased
after 1848 and the federal Frankfurt Parliament. Almost all German
states had a constitution and a parliament after 1850. German
states become unified in 1870.
• Contrary to what Marx had argued, no revolution took place in
Britain, Belgium, or Netherlands, the three most advanced
industrialized parts of Europe.
• In Russia no revolution occurred because Tsar Nicholas maintained
police surveillance and censorship, along with pro-monarchical
• Aftermath of the 1848 Revolutions
• European bureaucracies expanded.
European The aristocracy maintained its
• Restoration of conservatism
reinforced gender distinctions.
Women had played a big role in the
1848 revolts, building barricades,
• Many women in Paris seized the
opportunity during the 2nd republic
to demand greater rights.
• But as conservatives regained
power, the movement for women’s
rights was stalled.
• In May 1851, Queen Victoria of
Britain presided over a mid-century
celebration of peace in London: the
Exhibition of Works and Industry of
All Nations. The centerpiece was a
• CONCLUSION • When viewed on a global scale, all of these
rebellions signify a yearning on the part of
many different peoples for a world with
multiple centers and historical trajectories.
• Even after defeat, their messages remained
alive and continued to shape their
communities despite the “victory” of the
• The yearning for an alternative continued,
though it would take different forms in the next
• Boxer Rebellion
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