Lecture 9 internal threats

Lecture 9 internal threats - Internal Troubles External...

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Unformatted text preview: Internal Troubles, External Threats, 1800-1914 Threats, REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE REACTIONS • Throughout the nineteenth century, a new global order emerged based on the ideas of the French and American revolutions, laissez-faire capitalism, the nation-state, new technologies, and industrial organizations. • Its triumph was not preordained. In various areas and among diverse peoples, alternative movements periodically surfaced to challenge this future. • These rebellions, whether they emanated from political radicals, charismatic prophets, peasant movements, or anti-imperialist insurgents, developed counter-visions to the emerging status quo. • The conflict over the future, in many ways, was the distinguishing feature of world history during this century. distinguishing REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE REACTIONS • Everywhere the transformations of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries upset people’s lives and established ways people’s • In Europe, political and economic revolutions overturned the old order overturned • In North America, the United States’ conquest of lands and expansion upset Indian groups of • In Latin America, new nation-states struggled to sustain order to • In Asia and Africa, rulers had to come to terms with European economic and military power power REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE REACTIONS • Dissidents in all areas emerged to propose alternative scenarios that drew upon their own traditions as well as their contacts with outside disruptive forces disruptive • In one pattern, particularly in the Islamic Middle East, Islamic Africa, non-Islamic Africa, and China, alternative perspectives were shaped by the disruption of European commerce the • These areas saw the emergence of leaders who believed that their own traditions required rejuvenation rejuvenation REACTIONS TO SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE REACTIONS • In another pattern, mainly in Europe and the Americas, utopians and radicals envisioned more equitable rearrangements to the order created by the industrial and political revolutions the • The most radical envisioned a socialist alternative • The third pattern emerged among the colonized peoples peoples • Indigenous peoples in the Americas and South Asia struggled to defend their traditional worlds worlds FOUR SIMILARITIES OF ALTERNATIVE MOVEMENTS MOVEMENTS • All of them opposed some form of established authority established • They were steeped in local historical and cultural traditions cultural • They advocated new political and social arrangements arrangements • They either took place far from the center of the new order or were led by people on the margins the PROPHECY AND REVITALIZATION IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA ISLAMIC • The era of Islamic expansion and the flowering of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires were over over • European power encroached upon the Islamic world upon • Prophets emerged who urged revival and restoration of theocratic governments theocratic • Non-Islamic Africa was also transformed by the new emerging European trading regime and also witnessed the rise of charismatic leaders who drew strength from spiritual and magical traditions magical ISLAMIC REVITALIZATION ISLAMIC • Movements to revitalize Islam took place on the peripheries peripheries • Wahhabism Wahhabism • Muhammad Ibn abd al-Wahhab preached that the local population of the Najd region of the Arabian peninsula had become too religiously lax in the late eighteenth century religiously • Wahhabism swept across the peninsula Wahhabism • Followers sacked Shiite shrines and overtook the holy cities of Mecca and Medina the • The Ottomans used Muhammad Ali of Egypt and his army to put down the revolt and ISLAMIC REVITALIZATION ISLAMIC • Dan Fodio and the Fulani • Muslim revolts emerged in West Africa in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries eighteenth • The Fulani people sought to recreate a purer Islamic past Islamic • The Fulani Muslim cleric and prophet Usman dan Fodio created a vast empire Fodio • He waged jihad against unbelievers He • He especially targeted Hausa rulers deemed too lax in their religion and too tolerant of lax nonbelievers ISLAMIC REVITALIZATION ISLAMIC • Fulani women of North Nigeria made critical contributions to religious revolt • Men expected women to be modest but to support their community • Best-known female Muslim leader was Nana Asa’u • Eventually a new state emerged—the Sokoto Caliphate—that avidly promoted the growth of Islam ABI AL-QASIM AND ZAYNAB IN ALGERIA ABI Claiming that the Algerians offended a French envoy, France invaded Algeria in 1830. 1830. In no part of the Islamic world was opposition to European domination stronger than in Algeria. in The rebellion of Amir ‘Abd al-Qādir in 1830 and the revolt of 1849. The French The dir ruthlessly repressed both revolts. ruthlessly Algerian Muslims learned to use more subtle means to resist French authority. Algerian Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abi al-Qasim (1823-1897) was a leader of the Sufi Brotherhood from the Atlas Mountains and who provided a safe haven for those Algerians who did not want to live directly under French rule. He became very popular. Algerians When he became ill, a struggle for his successor ensued. The French supported his male cousin over his daughter Zaynab (1850-1904), assuming Islamic preference for patriarchies. The French underestimated Zaynab’s power and influence. When alpatriarchies. Qasim died in 1897, the French found themselves in opposition to a powerful Algerian Qasim woman—the French had never been opposed by a woman leader before. woman—the She was pious, celibate, knew her father’s teachings very well, and was strongly opposed to the French. She earned the trust and loyalties of Algerians. opposed She was willing to contest French power more directly than her father. In spite of this, the French occupation of Algeria would last until 1962 when they were driven out by war. were MOROCCO AND FRANCE In 1830, as the French were invading and occupying Algeria, the Moroccans were concerned that a Christian power was now on their border, and felt threatened by invasion. They had known European invaders before, such as Spaniards from the Iberian Peninsula, but they had enjoyed little contact with Europe since the end of the Napoleonic Wars. contact Sultan Mulay ‘Abd ar-Rahmān (1822-1859) was drawn into the FrenchSultan Algerian struggle when he offered arms and supplies to an Algerian Algerian resistance fighter, Amir ‘Abd al-Qādir. resistance dir. In 1841, Amir hid inside Morocco’s borders as the French were after him. In August 1844, the French navy bombarded Tangier and Mogador, and invaded Morocco, destroying a Moroccan army. invaded The French wanted peace with Morocco but on their own terms. Two treaties solidified French success and the Moroccans suffered heavily. treaties The Sultan had to agree to help find Amir, negotiate new borders, and had to abandon his opposition to the French. to In response to the French threat, and to a growing fascination with French culture and science, the Sultan sent an ambassador to to Paris in 1845-1846. culture CHARISMATIC MILITARY MEN IN NON-ISLAMIC AFRICA IN • In southern Africa, in the early nineteenth century, the Mfecane revolt reordered the political map • The Bantu population in southern Africa had grown to strain the resources of the land CHARISMATIC MILITARY MEN IN NON-ISLAMIC AFRICA IN Shaka Zulu, son of a minor chief, possessed great military and organizational skills, and emerged to create a ruthless warrior state to replace the modest chieftaincies • He assimilated many conquered peoples • Other peoples duplicated his efforts in response to the threat his new state posed • The states of Ndebele and Sotho emerged • Shaka’s power stemmed from the tradition of “big men” in the area who emerged at times of crisis and social change • Shaka and other leaders forged new states and built new ethnic and kinship ties using long-standing religious and cultural symbols TAIPING REBELLION TAIPING Though Europeans were confined to 5 port cities, the Qing government were humiliated by their presence. Most Chinese peasants felt the government had lost its legitimacy, and thousands rebelled. rebelled. Land shortages, poverty, opium addiction, and social instability led to unrest. instability The rebellion was rooted in a long tradition of popular religious revolts. TAIPING REBELLION TAIPING In times of political upheaval, local religious sects were able to turn small revolts into large scale rebellions. scale The Taiping rebellion began in southern China and drew upon its allegiance to Christianity, and they sought social and economic justice. economic Led by Hong Xiuquan, and his visions and Hong Xiuquan Hong messianic dreams, the movement was sparked by (1813-1864) (1813-1864) his open preaching and destruction of Confucian symbols. symbols. Many of his followers came from the port cities where Europeans had disrupted the traditional local economies. But Hong’s anger was directed not at the Europeans, but at the Qing government. the By 1853, Taiping rebels had captured the city of Nanjing Nanjing TAIPING REBELLION Western governments also opposed the rebellion as a perversion of Christianity. Christianity. A foreign army eventually took part in the suppression of the rebellion. rebellion. Hong died defending the capital city in 1864. Hong Like other rebellions in Africa, the Islamic world, the Taiping Rebellion based its critique of the old order on a promise to restore lost harmony. lost The rebellion weakened the central government, wasted agrarian lands, drained the treasury, created waves of refugees, and created local dissent. local In the summer of 1898, Qing Emperor Guangxu tried to implement reforms to address the rising social problems, modernize industry, agriculture, commerce, education, and the military. His opponents blocked the reforms and had him placed under house arrest. blocked Boxer Rebellion, 1900 Boxer Chinese intellectuals political leaders developed a non-European stance, while advocating European ideas and technology to strengthen China. strengthen The most explosive response to these changes was the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. Rebellion After the deaths of two German missionaries killed by Chinese residents, the German government demanded the right to construct new cathedrals and open new ports. new As tensions grew, martial arts groups became more politicized and attacked missionaries and Chinese Christians. In 1899, several of these groups formed the “Boxers United in Righteousness.” They believed that their divine protection rendered themselves immune to all earthly weapons, including bullets. themselves As the movement grew, the Qing tried to control the movement, but failed in Beijing and Tianjin. Embracing the Boxers’ cause, Empress Dowager declared war on foreign powers in June 1900. Boxer Rebellion, 1900 Boxer The Boxers attacked everything that represented foreign cultures, including railroads, telegraph lines, lamps and clocks. telegraph In August 1900, a foreign army of 20,000 soldiers crushed the rebellion. About half of the troops were from Japan. The others were from Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and the US. Russia, The Qing were force to sign the Boxer Protocol, in which they paid indemnity for foreign damage, about twice the annual income of the Chinese empire. Although defeated, the Boxers showed how far China had come since the Taiping uprising. The Boxers were agrarian peasants and resisted the inroads Europeans had been making into China from the ports. The Boxers remained loyal to the dynasty and showed that mass resistance to European imperialism was possible. possible. Meiji Restoration Japan In the 1860s, Japanese rulers wanted to make their country look like a modern nationmake state. Since the early 17th century the Tokugawa Shogunate kept contact with the West to a minimum. minimum. But an American naval officer, Matthew Perry, entered Edo bay in 1853, and along with the Russian, Dutch, and British, forced Japan’s leaders to accept humiliating treaties. Japan’s Opened Japanese ports to the West Opened Europeans were exempt from Japanese laws. laws. Limits were placed on Japanese tariffs. Limits The Japanese responded by adopting Western practices. Western Meiji Restoration Japan In 1868, the reformers toppled the Tokugawa and promised to return Japan to its mythic greatness. to The Meiji Emperor Mutsuhito (r.1868-1912) became the symbol of the new Japan, by forming new schools, promoting propaganda, creating a national army, and promoting a national language and ethnic homogeneity. army, The Meiji were successful in overcoming very old divisions in Japan The One of their successes was in economics. In 1871 they banned the feudal structure, and rallied the country around the Yen. country “Rich country, strong army” was Rich the slogan of the Meiji. the In 1889 it formed a constitution based on the German model. based By the end of the century, Japan wanted to open up new markets for its new industries. its Meiji Restoration Japan The Meiji wanted to established large spheres of influence in Asia against their European rivals. Asia Unlike the British and Americans who trained locals to administer their imperial holdings, The Meiji Japanese refused to do the same when it conquered Okinawa in 1879, claiming the Okinawans were unfit to rule themselves. Okinawans In 1876 the Meiji set its sights on the Korean peninsula, which one German advisor referred to as, “the dagger pointed at the heart of Japan.” heart Fearing an invasion of Korea, the Chinese went to war with Japan between 1894-1895, the Sino-Japanese War in which the Chinese suffered a humiliating defeat. Chinese Its victory in China increased Meiji power, now with no equal in Asia. Taiwan went to Japan as did Korea in 1910. Asia. POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES AND INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENTS 1800-1850 MOVEMENTS Ideology: a word coined by Count Destutt de Tracy word during the French Revolution; an ideal set of beliefs about how a society’s social and political order should be organized. Conservatism Conservatism • Liberalism Liberalism • Socialism Socialism • CONSERVATISM CONSERVATISM The French Revolution showed that the old orders could be toppled. orders • After 1815, the disillusionment with the revolution allowed for the reestablishment of monarchies, but now their authority did not seem so natural and permanent as they once had. • The political doctrine that justified the restoration was called conservatism. conservatism • They argued that the Enlightenment led to the Revolution which led to the Terror which • EDMUND BURKE (ENGLISH, 1729-1799) EDMUND Criticized the French Revolutionaries for thinking they could create a new society based on reason. based • He claimed that government had to be based in long experience, with gradual change, and respect for tradition. tradition. • Religious and other major institutional authorities such as the church, state, and the family, were essential to the foundation of any society. foundation • Faith, sentiment, history, and tradition should replace the • CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES The conservative Congress of Vienna disappointed those who were looking for constitutional reform and national independence. constitutional • In Latin America revolts for national independence succeeded through Simon Bolivar. independence • In 1814, Spanish soldiers demanded that Ferdinand VII adhere to the Spanish constitution of 1812. 1812. • Naples and Piedmont-Sardinia also rebelled in the name of constitutional government. • In 1821 the Austrians defeated the rebels in Piedmont and Naples. Piedmont • Demands for constitutionalism also surfaced in • CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES TO CONSERVATISM CHALLENGES The Ottoman Turks faced challenges in the Balkans in • Serbia gained independence in 1817. 1817. • Greeks revolted in 1821 and 1822, killing every Turk who did not escape. escape. • Western opinion turned against the Turks because Greece was the ancient home of Western Civilization. Civilization. • In 1827, a coalition of British, French and Russian ships destroyed the Turkish fleet. the • In 1828, Russia declared war on the Turks. • Treaty of Adrianople (1829) gave Russia dominion over the Danubian • LIBERALISM LIBERALISM Origins lie in John Locke, and Adam Smith and the Enlightenment. the • Opposed to conservatism at one end, and leftist radicalism on the other. radicalism • Support Enlightenment ideals of constitutionalism, individual liberty, economic free trade; political and economic freedom translates into social improvement and economic growth. into • Opposed the violence of the French Terror, but supported the Industrial Revolution supported • Made up of Middle class merchants, manufacturers, and professionals. manufacturers, • JEREMY BENTHAM (ENGLISH, 1748-1832) JEREMY His brand of liberalism was called utilitarianism . called • The best policy is one that produces “the greatest good for the greatest number.” greatest • He proposed elaborate reforms of almost all British institutions, including a new model for a prison called a panopticon, panopticon where inmates are supervised and rehabilitated rather than punished. punished. • He supported the • BRITISH REFORM BILL OF 1832 BRITISH British liberals pushed for an expansion of the electorate to include a greater proportion of the middle class population, and tp repeal the Corn Laws which were tariffs on the import of foreign grain. Corn • When the Tories in Parliament resisted the electoral reform, the liberals organized mass demonstrations. liberals • • The Reform Bill passed after the King intervened. The the number of male voters increased by 50%, only 1 in 5 Britons could vote and they had to be property owners. could • Yet, the bill gave new representation to the industrial north of England and set a precedent for future suffrage. England • The Anti-Corn Law League was established in order to resist tariffs on grain imports. They published a journal called The Economist. The • In 1846, with support from a Tory Prime Minister, the Corn laws were repealed. were • Liberalism had less appeal on the Continent than it did in Britain because industrialization was slower there. because • Liberal reforms were promoted in France, Prussia, Austria, Hungary, and Russia and • SOCIALISM SOCIALISM Socialism followed where Liberalism left off. They argued that the liberties advocated by Liberalism only benefited the middle class, at the expense of the workers. the • Rather than reform they wanted a total transformation of society that would abolish the classes of capitalists and workers. the • Socialists were critical of Industrialization for creating urban conditions of misery and exploitation. exploitation. • Utopian socialists believed that society would benefit if all of its members gave up the ownership of private property. ownership • ROBERT OWEN (ENGLISH, 1771-1858) ROBERT Founder of British Socialism Socialism • He built a factory in Scotland where workers labored for only ten hours per day. per • He moved to the US and established a commune in Indiana called New Harmony. It failed after three years due to internal conflicts. internal • His writings inspired cooperatives and trade • CLAUDE HENRI DE SAINT-SIMON (FRENCH, 1760-1825) (FRENCH, A noble who had served in the American War of Independence, Saint-Simon coined the terms industrialism and industrialism industrialist to define the industrialist new economic order. new • He believed that industrial work should not be controlled by politicians, but by scientists, engineers, artists, and • CHARLES FOURIER (FRENCH, 1772-1837) CHARLES A salesman for a Lyon cloth merchant, Fourier urged the creation of communities that were part garden city and part agricultural commune. agricultural • All jobs were to be rotated for maximum happiness. for • The emancipation of women was essential to Fourier’s vision: “The extension of privileges to women is the fundamental cause of all social • FLORA TRISTAN (FRENCH, 1801-1844) FLORA Activist who devoted herself to the reconciliation male and female workers. female • She was motivated by the conditions of London’s poor. conditions • She published books and pamphlets urging male workers to address the unequal status of women unequal • “The emancipation of male The workers is impossible so long as women remain in a degraded state.” degraded • ÉTIENNE CABET (FRENCH, 1788-1856) ÉTIENNE Socialist who coined the term communist, communist emphasizing the communal ownership of property. property. • In 1840, he published Travels in Icaria describing Travels a communist experiment where a popularly elected communist dictatorship organized work, reduced the workday to • KARL MARX (GERMAN, 1818-1883) KARL Socialist writer and theorist whose work would produce an unprecedented intellectual and political earthquake over the next 150 years. the • Marx was a follower of the Prussian philosopher Hegel, whose idea of history as a progressive series of rational stages was inspired by Napoleonic Wars. Unlike Hegel, who argued that later stages of history subsumed earlier ones leading to an absolute spiritual existence at the end of history, Marx argued for a materialist history where the stages lead from feudalism to capitalism to communism. In the communist state, the contradictions of the class struggles of industrial capitalism are finally ended. industrial • MARXISM MARXISM The increasing contradictions of industrial capitalism would eventually come to a crisis where the workers would then initiate a proletarian revolution leading to the overthrow of the capitalist system, the abolition of classes, and the collective ownership of the means of production. production. • Marx wrote very little on communism, however, and spent most of his later years in Paris and London researching and writing on capitalism, which culminated in the monumental multi-volume work titled Das Kapital. Das • In the Communist Manifesto, co-written with Friedrich Engels, Communist co-written they argue that a proletarian revolution is inevitable as industrial capitalism spreads across the globe. capitalism • “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their The • EUROPE IN 1830 1830 RETURN OF THE BOURBON FAMILY RETURN In 1814, Louis XVIII was granted the French crown, reestablishing the Bourbon dynasty. He tried to maintain a sense of continuity by retaining the Napoleonic Code, and allowing for those who purchased church lands after 1789 to keep their property. 1789 • Louis XVIII Louis (r.1814-1824) (r.1814-1824) Louis XVIII’s opponents were called Ultras, and they wanted France to abandon its revolutionary past. After Louis’s nephew was killed in 1820, the Ultras demanded even more conservative policies. conservative • In 1824, Charles X succeeded Louis XVII and gave nobles back much of the land they had lost since 1789. since • Charles X Charles (r.1824-1830) (r.1824-1830) JULY REVOLUTION OF 1830 JULY Between July 26-29, fighting broke out in Paris. Citizen rebels built barricades to stop the movement of soldiers. • • 500 citizens and 150 soldiers were killed. After three days of fighting, and fearing a return of the republic, a group of moderate liberals agreed to give the crown to the Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe, the cousin of of ans, Charles X. Charles • JULY MONARCHY OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE, 1830-1848 JULY Charles X went into exile in Britain. Britain. • He instituted new political and voting rights, but less than 6% of men could vote, and did little for the workers who manned the barricades. manned • In 1831 in Lyon, a revolt of silk-workers was crushed by the military. the • The July Revolution succeeded in preventing those who wanted to restore France to its pre-1789 social and political structure. But, it failed to go any further than establishing a liberal, • Louis-Philippe (r.1830-1848) Louis-Philippe European Revolutions of 1848 European French Discontent in the 1840s French In the late 1840s, crop failures led to food shortages and high prices. food • Overpopulation led to famine in some places such as Ireland where an airborne blight destroyed the potato crop in 1846, 1848, 1851. The potato was the staple food source of the Irish. 1 in 8 people died of starvation and disease. Many Irish by the thousands emigrated to the England, Canada, and the United States. England, • The period was also marked by increasing unemployment: wages rose 5.5% in the 1830s; 10.5% in the 1840s; but the cost of living increased by 16% each decade. each • Friedrich Engels described the urban workers of this period as “the most miserable class that sneaked its way into history.” history.” • In France, Louis-Philippe blocked electoral reform and outlawed the • 1848 Revolution in France 1848 On February 22, 1848, opponents of the government took to the streets in protest. the • By Feb. 24, 1500 barricades had been erected throughout Paris. By • Faced with growing discontent, Louis-Philippe abdicated and fled to England. fled • The first four months of the Second Republic of France was marked by a divergence between moderate republicans who had the support of the majority in France, and radical republicans who had the support of the Parisian working class. who • In the aftermath of the February Revolution, national workshops were established to ease the unemployment problem, but they were designed more to immobilize conflict rather than put people to work. people • Elections to the National Assembly further frustrated efforts by workers to gain political power, as the largely conservative rural population elected representatives who opposed workers’ rights. population • 1848 Revolution in France 1848 In May workers again took to the streets and declared their own provisional government. But the established government was far more organized than it had been in the waning days of Louis-Philippe. had • On June 22, the national workshops were abolished out of a growing fear of leftist rebellion. The government mobilized the army. The leftists refused to disband and took up arms. disband • For three days Paris witnessed some of the bloodiest violence in the 19th century. century. • Unlike in February, where workers and bourgeoisie fought side by side against the July Monarchy, now workers and bourgeoisie fought against one another. against • At the end of the June Days, 10,000 people were killed; 11,000 were arrested and sent to Algeria. arrested • 1848 Revolution in France 1848 The June Days established a clear-cut victory for the moderate republicans in the government, but it left great bitterness in the working class. The June Days strengthened what came to be known as the “Red Fear”: government policies directed at subverting leftists and radical organizations. subverting • New legislation was introduced limiting freedom of the press, rights to political associations, and outlawed secret societies. rights • In the constitution that was completed in November, the power of the president of the republic was increased in order to deal effectively with future proletarian uprisings. effectively • Presidential elections were held in December. Returning from exile in England was Charles Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew of Napoleon I, to run as a candidate. nephew • He ran as a defender of order amidst the chaos of the past year. He • Initially not taken very seriously, he began to gain widespread support largely because of his name. support • In contrast to the drab years of the July Monarchy under LouisIn Philippe, Louis-Napoleon likened himself to his uncle and his Philippe, • Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III) Louis-Napoleon won in a landslide victory. landslide • The republicans supported him because they thought he would obey them; royalists supported him as a step towards restoring the crown; workers supported him because he was not associated with the June Days. with • However, Louis-Napoleon’s election meant the end of the short-lived Second Republic. short-lived • In 1852, he dissolved the republic and declared himself, Napoleon III, emperor of France. Napoleon • His reign lasted until the 1870 war with Prussia. war • Aftermath of the 1848 Revolutions Aftermath The widespread revolutions failed to achieve their goals of social and political reform. But they left a imprint in Europe that would not be forgotten. be • The 2nd Republic in France, which lasted only 3 years, set the stage for the long-lasting 3rd Republic born in 1870. for • In Italy, the failure of unification in 1848 did not stop the national unification movement, which then gained more momentum as it demanded greater democratic involvement of the population. Italy will unify in 1870. will • In the German states popular nationalist movements increased after 1848 and the federal Frankfurt Parliament. Almost all German states had a constitution and a parliament after 1850. German states become unified in 1870. states • Contrary to what Marx had argued, no revolution took place in Britain, Belgium, or Netherlands, the three most advanced industrialized parts of Europe. industrialized • In Russia no revolution occurred because Tsar Nicholas maintained police surveillance and censorship, along with pro-monarchical • Aftermath of the 1848 Revolutions Aftermath • European bureaucracies expanded. European The aristocracy maintained its power. power. • Restoration of conservatism reinforced gender distinctions. Women had played a big role in the 1848 revolts, building barricades, making bandages. making • Many women in Paris seized the opportunity during the 2nd republic to demand greater rights. to • But as conservatives regained power, the movement for women’s rights was stalled. • In May 1851, Queen Victoria of Britain presided over a mid-century celebration of peace in London: the Exhibition of Works and Industry of All Nations. The centerpiece was a • CONCLUSION • When viewed on a global scale, all of these rebellions signify a yearning on the part of many different peoples for a world with multiple centers and historical trajectories. multiple • Even after defeat, their messages remained alive and continued to shape their communities despite the “victory” of the dominant powers. dominant • The yearning for an alternative continued, though it would take different forms in the next century. century. TERMS TERMS • Boxer Rebellion Boxer • Conservatism Conservatism • Liberalism Liberalism • Socialism Socialism ...
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