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lecture 10 imperialism - Nineteenth-Century Imperialism...

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Unformatted text preview: Nineteenth-Century Imperialism Imperialism Imperialism Imperialism Wallerstein: “World System Theory” Wallerstein: Core Core Periphery Periphery Semi-Periphery Semi-Periphery External External Britain and France (core) benefited the most from their colonial empires (periphery) in the Americas, Asia, the Middle east and Africa, extracting huge profits from international trade and exchange of manufactured goods for raw resources. manufactured European Expansion and the Rise of Empires European European colonialism gave way to imperialism in the 19th century. century. – Colonialism led to the establishment of settler colonies in the Colonialism Americas, direct rule by Europeans, slave labor from Africa, and direct widespread destruction of local indigenous peoples and cultures. widespread – Imperialism, iin contrast, meant more indirect forms of economic and Imperialism n indirect political rule. Europeans still derived economic profit from their colonies, but now they also aimed at reforming colonial peoples in their own image—called the “civilizing process”—as long as such reform did not interfere with their economic interests. not By the 1830s and 1840s, Britain and France continued to extend their empires across the globe. But by the end of the century, Italy, Germany, the United States, and Japan will also extend their imperial forces. extend British Empire British At the height of their power, the British controlled 1/4 of the world’s population, 1/5 of the land mass of the planet, and were the masters of the seas. “The sun never sets on the British Empire.” British Imperialism in Advertising British French Empire French At the height of its power, between 1919 and 1939, the French controlled about 8% of the world’s land French colonial empires are divided into stages, the first empire (light blue) which lasted from the 16th century up until the French Revolution, and the second empire (dark blue) which developed in the 19th century and lasted until the 1960s. 1960s. Other Empires Other Italian Empire 1870-1945 Italian German Empire 1870-1945 German Japanese Empire 1867-1945 Japanese American Empire 1803-? American Empires by Region Region South Pacific Pacific New Zealander, 1773 New Scientific Voyages of Captain James Cook Scientific In Oceania and the South Pacific, the British showed how intimate science and imperialism could be. science Captain James Cook made three voyages across the Pacific Ocean in the late 18th century. He visited Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia to observe the natural world in these places, but also to claim territory for Britain. Britain. His voyages, and his accounts of them in published maps and diaries, became highly popular in Britain, led to the popular impression of distant, exotic, far away places. away This also prepared the way for more intensive colonization. more Scientific Voyages of Captain James Cook Scientific His three voyages between 1768 and 1779 produced over 3,000 drawings of plants, birds, landscapes and peoples never seen before by Europeans. before Cook’s scientific voyages inspired Napoleon’s conquest of Egypt in 1798. in The British originally intended to convert the Australian colony into a European-like place. On his 3rd voyage, Cook brought animals and plants from Europe to help populate the island continent. continent. In 1788, Australia became a prison colony, replacing the former prison colony in Georgia, now part of the US. prison By 1860 there were 1.2 million Europeans living in Australia. By Like the native Americans, native aboriginals died off from European disease and increasingly forced westward into the more inhospitable parts of the island continent. inhospitable Scientific Classification of Race Scientific Cook’s descriptions of the peoples of the South Seas underscored the place that race occupied in the minds of 18th century Europeans: biological concepts of “race” came to delineate the differences of peoples across the globe. globe. The Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus went from classifying plants and animals to classifying human beings: homo sapiens were divided into 5 groups or “races” according to a combination of characteristics such as skin color, physical features, and social organization. Africans were placed on the lowest order and Europeans at the highest. Europeans The physical model for this classification system was classical Greek sculpture, revealing the cultural idealization of Europeans. idealization North Africa North Napoleon at the Battle of the Pyramids, 1798 Napoleon Egypt Egypt Napoleon dreamed of reinventing the Roman Empire on French foundations. He took the ideals of the French Revolution—liberty, equality, fraternity—and claimed that his armies brought these ideas to oppressed peoples, and that they would embrace them openly. In other words, he considered himself a liberator. But, in his experience in Egypt, Napoleon would find otherwise. But, The Directory of the French Republic in 1798 set aside plans for invading England, and instead chose to occupy Egypt in order to disrupt British trade from India. He used Egyptian animosity towards the Ottoman Empire, misleading them into thinking that he was fighting for Islam. into After defeating the Ottoman army at the Battle of the Pyramids in 1798, Napoleon was met with stiff determined resistance from the local Egyptian populations. Before being driven out by the British navy, Napoleon stayed in Egypt long enough to disseminate Enlightenment ideas to the local population. enough Napoleon and Orientalism Napoleon Napoleon’s Egypt was the product of his own imagination, acquired through reading classical texts on ancient Egypt. He wanted to restore Egypt to its ancient glory, and for this, he considered that only a European power—specifically, himself—could accomplish this task. European He brought with him to Egypt a number of French scholars who specialized in “Orientalism,” a body of knowledge about the “Orient,” the Islamic cultures of North Africa and the Middle East (and not about not Asia). Asia). The “Orient” is a product of European (or “Occidental”) imagination, the result of scholarly study of classical texts and their descriptions of places many Europeans had never been. It is made up of stereotypes, it “feminizes” the Muslim peoples of these parts of the world, and was used as a justification for European domination. world, Ultimately, the success of Orientalist projects is the internalization of this idea by Europeans, but more importantly by the dominated themselves. (see Edward Said, Orientalism, 1978) Orientalism Orientalism in 19thOrientalism Century Painting Orientalism in 19th-Century Painting Painting Although the peasant revolution succeeded in Mexico, elsewhere in Latin America the ruling establishment remained in power. remained In Cuba, local peasants wanted land reform from Spanish rulers. They initially succeeded in claiming sugar estates, some of which belonged to US American owners. US In the late 1890s, the US declared war on Spain, invaded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. Puerto Claiming to help Cuban nationalists, the US gave the estates back to the Cuban nationalists and disarmed the peasants. peasants. Cubans, Filipinos, and Puerto Ricans soon found themselves subject to US authority. Filipino rebels launched a war on the Americans. Over 200,00 filipinos died in the fighting. fighting. Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Philippines Philippines Sub-Saharan Africa Africa Scramble for Africa After the British invasion of Egypt in 1882, Europeans began to take direct control of the interior of subdirect Saharan Africa for the first time. The slave trade had diminished by then with the abolition of the trade led by Britain in 1807. led Now, Europeans wanted resources such as palm oil, cotton, diamonds, cocoa, and rubber. cocoa, Britain also wanted to keep the southern and eastern coasts of Africa under its control as stopover ports for its ships from India and China. China. The British, French, Portuguese, Belgians, Italians and Germans waged a struggle for territory, resources and people that would culminate in extensive empires and eventually a world war. eventually Scramble for Africa German Chancellor Bismarck claimed control of Cameroon, Togo, and South West Africa in 1884; East Africa in 1885. West The British wanted to dominate the continent “from Cairo to Capetown.” continent The British were led by fantasies of great treasure in the interior of East Africa. great Exlorers: David Livingstone (1813-1873) and Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904). The French controlled much of West Africa. Africa. Technology, guns, medicine, railroads and steamships were the key to European domination of Africa. domination Before the invention of quinine in the 1840s, Europeans were highly susceptible to malaria if venturing into the interior of Africa. As European death rates dropped from quinine, African death rates increased. increased. Cecil Rhodes and European Domination British businessman and politician Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) went to South Africa just as diamonds were discovered in 1870. discovered He cornered the diamond market and claimed large territories for Britain. and He pushed south into what would soon become Rhodesia, named after him. him. Reflecting Social Darwinism: “We are the finest race in the world,” he claimed of the British, “and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is.” the Unlike the Chinese and Indians, the British saw Africans as far inferior to themselves. Standards of living for Africans dropped under European imperial domination. imperial Diamond Mines Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 Berlin At the Berlin Conference of 1885, European powers carved up Africa ignoring existing ethnic and cultural boundaries. The purpose of the conference was to reduce bloodshed and to control European ambitions in Africa. ambitions But European leaders were determined to expand their power. But Europeans back home wanted more imperialist ventures which only fueled the already increasing nationalism of newly united empires such as Italy and Germany. Empire was a sign of national strength and pride. Empire German missionary in German East Africa East The Boer War, 1899-1902 The The British ended up in conflict with the French in West Africa and then with the Boers. Boers. The Dutch originally settled in southern Africa, but the British gained control by 1815. Descendents of the Dutch were called Boers Boers (Dutch for farmers) or Afrikaners. Afrikaners Rhodes, who by 1896 was the prime minister of the Cape Colony, sent a raid into Transvaal in the northeast. He wanted to stir up trouble between the Boers and the British so that the British might takeover Transvaal and the Orange Free State which the Boers controlled. controlled. The Boers drove out Rhodes’s raiders which infuriated the British and they engaged in a three year war with Transvaal and the OFS, finally annexing both in 1902 with the defeat of the Boers. The Union of South Africa would be formed in 1910. Africa Belgian Massacres in the Congo Belgian King Leopold II (r.1865-1909) was driven by greed and conquered and claimed the Congo for Belgium in opposition to the French. opposition He thought that a Belgian empire would make him a major force in the world. The Belgians expressed little interest in empires. empires. The Belgian Congo was unique in that it belonged to a single man. man. Leopold was ruthless tyrant. His authority was violently cruel and brutal on the local populations. and When news of the slaughter of innocent Congolese made its way to Belgium, the parliament immediately took the Congo away from Leopold. away The ruthlessness of the Belgians on the Congolese inspired Joseph Conrad to write his classic novel, Heart of Darkness. Heart Asia British in India India was the largest and most important of Europe’s colonial possessions between 1750 and 1850. between Increasingly, the British East India Company (est. 1600) intervened in Indian affairs, controlling imports and exports, and undermining British claims for a world economic system and free trade. for After 1757, when the British took over the state of Bengal and put a puppet regime in place, the BEIC began to reap the economic benefits. By 1760 many British officials were earning a minimum of £500,000 a year through illicit or predatory ventures. illicit By the early 1800s, the company had annexed other territories bringing much of the 200,000 people on the subcontinent under British rule. British British in India To carry out its administrative responsibilities, the BEIC hired Hindu kings and Muslim princes to carry out its plans. They were able to retain the royal titles, but lost their autonomy and authority. titles, The BEIC also maintained a standing army of 155,000 soldiers, or sepoys. sepoys The Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 By 1857, dissatisfaction with the practices By BEIC erupted in violence as the sepoys rebelled against their British occupiers. The sepoys sacked Delhi and declared an independent Indian nation. independent The British brutally crushed the mutiny and a revolt in the neighboring city of Jhansi. revolt Although Queen Victoria was named empress of India in 1876, Indian nationalism would become an insurmountable problem for the British. the Educated by the British, but also suffering discrimination from them, the Indian elite formed the Indian National Congress in 1885 to promote Indian nationalism and challenge British rule on the subcontinent. The INC would develop into a mass movement in the twentieth century. twentieth British in the Malay Peninsula and Burma To the East of India, the British took control of the Malay peninsula in 1874 and the interior of Burma in 1885. The British were dependent on tin, oil, rice, teak, and rubber from this region, but also access to interior trade routes from China to India. trade The British also wanted to counter Russian and French expansion in the region. region. French in Indochina In 1887 France created the Union of Indochina from the ancient states of Cambodia, Tonkin, Annam, Cochin China. Laos was added in 1893. Laos Like the British, the French spread western culture to these societies. western The French promoted agricultural reforms, sanitation projects, and health programs. These programs improved population growth but also strained existing resources. resources. The French siphoned profits from these imperial projects and tried to transform Saigon into a center of French civilization, emulating Paris. emulating Like elsewhere, contact with the west promoted nationalist movements in opposition to European rule. opposition Russian Expansion into Asia Since 1865, the Russians had been absorbing Muslim states of central Asia including Turkestan and parts of Afghanistan. Russia also reached into Persia, India, and China in opposition to the British. Persia, The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad allowed Russia to integrate Siberia into the vast state, and to reach Vladivostok, a warm-water port on the Pacific. Pacific. British in China and the Opium Wars The BEIC also tried to establish trade with China in opium. The Chinese government tried to keep its population from using the addictive drug for recreational uses. They restricted Europeans to the port city of Canton, and banned the export of precious metals that could be traded for opium. could But these measures failed as the British smuggled opium into china and bribed officials. officials. In 1839 the Chinese expelled the British from southern China and the British responded by bombing port cities. responded In 1842 the Chinese were forced to agree to the Treaty of Nanking, allowing the British to enter China through 4 more ports British British in China and the Opium Wars The British also made the island of Hong Kong theirs, received a sizeable indemnity, and were ensured of opium trade. trade. The British also stipulated that any privileges granted to other European powers be granted to them also. This allowed for further exploitation of Chinese markets by Europeans and North Americans. North Yet, China did not become a colony like India. Most European continued to trade in the ports, and the majority of Chinese people went about their business as they had always done. business Europeans in China Europeans Chinese conservatives rallied around the Empress Dowager Cixi. Chinese China’s defeat by Japan in 1895, along with increasing presence of British, French, German, Russian each demanded that the Chinese government grant them each areas of influence within China. government The United States, prompted by ideology and self-interest, argued instead for an open-door policy, allowing access to all foreign traders. instead The US also wanted the Qing government to accept Western economic norms, and the superiority of Christian civilization. economic American Imperialism American American Imperialism American Military might, diplomacy, and vast numbers of settlers allowed for the US to expand towards the Pacific in the 19th century. the The territorial expansion was even more impressive given the conflicts over slavery an the Civil War which nearly brought about the dissolution of the union. dissolution In 1845, a New York newspaper editor, John L. O’Sullivan, coined the phrase “manifest destiny” indicating that the unquestionable superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization spreads naturally, taking over the territory of “lesser peoples.” (part of Social Darwinist thinking) the Initially, native Americans welcomed the Europeans to North America in the 16th and 17th centuries. But, as the French and British, and later the Americans spread their civilization westward, native peoples did not welcome their intruders from the east. native The Indians of the Ohio Valley, for instance, threatened by US imperialism, dreamed of a world free of imperialist oppression. imperialism, Tenskwatawa (1768-1834) Tenskwatawa In 1805, many native Americans flocked to hear the prophecies of Tenskwatawa, the “Shawnee Prophet.” the Like Hong Xiuquan (in China), he argued that Europeans would disappear if Indians returned to their traditional practices. Thousands renounced colonialist ways, and prepared to combat US expansion. US American officials initially regarded Tenskwatawa as deluded, but harmless. Tenskwatawa The governor of the territory, William Henry Harrison challenged Tenskwatawa to make the sun stand still. He one-upped Harrison because he knew of a solar eclipse. Almost on cue the sky went dark. Tenskwatawa (1768-1834) Tenskwatawa Americans tried to bribe him with cash to keep him quiet. But that failed. failed. Tenskwatawa’s brother, Tecumseh, spread his message throughout the Great Lakes region. He also encourage the many tribes of the region to form a confederation. region Harrison saw Tecumseh as more dangerous than his brother and warned of an “Indian menace” that was forming that would rival the empires of the Aztecs and Incas. empires Harrison attacked Tenskwatawa’s village in 1811. He fled to Canada. Tecumseh was hired by the British to fight the Americans in the war of 1812. At the battle of the Thames in 1813 Tecumseh was killed. This finally dashed the hopes for Indian unity. killed. The Americans continued to move west into Indian territories and exerted brutal violence against native peoples in the name of “manifest destiny.” Settlers with the help of the US army displaced many native peoples who eventually were confined to reservations. peoples White Man’s Burden White By the end of the 19th century, imperial triumphs were celebrated, imperial images appeared in advertising and postcards. Imperialism seemed to be the destiny for Europe, The US and the rest of the world. world. As wars in the colonies mounted and tensions between imperial powers rose, a new push for larger armies was presented to the European public along with growing nationalism. with Women were also seen as essential to...
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