lecture 11 unsettled world

lecture 11 unsettled world - An Unsettled World An...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: An Unsettled World An 1880-1914 An Unsettled World • At the turn of the 20th century, Europeans and people of At European descent occupied a commanding position in the world. • They led a world in which scientific and technological advancements promised to usher in an age of progress and prosperity. • Yet theirs was a world unsettled. • In Europe, social and economic dislocations were producing pronounced unrest and anxiety. • Social problems abounded in cities where the rich and powerful lived right next door to the poor and the not-sopowerful poor. poor. • Women increasingly agitated for greater independence and enhanced political and legal rights. An Unsettled World An • New directions in the arts and sciences, or “modernism,” questioned fundamental religious assumptions and traditional values. • Abroad, agitation against indigenous elites or colonial rulers abounded. • Everywhere personal and national identities came unraveled. • Race, more than ever before, became a central feature of identity and justification for inequalities. • National identities became even stronger. • This unsettlement contributed to the tensions that caused World War I. caused Progress, Upheaval, and Movement •Some benefited from changes in the years Some before 1914; others faced social and economic frustration economic •In Europe and the United States, left-wing In radicals and middle-class reformers sought political and social change political •In places colonized by Europe and the United In States, resentment grew toward colonial rulers and indigenous collaborators and •Revolutions in China, Mexico, and Russia Revolutions toppled autocratic regimes toppled Progress, Upheaval, and Movement Progress, •New industries drove economic growth and New urbanization urbanization •Growing capitalism (free-market, lassie faire) also led Growing to rising inequalities to •Industrialization changed how and where people worked how Industrialization •Widespread rural-to-urban migration •Cities gained magnificent new cultural institutions such Cities as museums and libraries, which at least a minority of residents had the leisure time and disposable income to enjoy enjoy •Cities also housed millions in crowded, disease-ridden Cities slums slums •Conflicts between the rich and the poor abounded, Conflicts particularly when city administrations tried to improve Progress, Upheaval, and Movement •European and North European American intellectuals worried about the world’s future; they wrote about the downside of progress downside •The writings of The intellectuals of the type labeled modernism labeled •Modernist ideas Modernist circulated the globe including European and North American colonies North Peoples in Motion •Mass emigration took place globally •Europeans moved to America and Australia •Indians moved to other parts of South Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean •Chinese moved to North and South America, New Zealand, Hawaii, Chinese West Indies, and Southeast Asia West •Many migrated within their own country •Varied reasons why people emigrated •Mine workers •Colonial officials and soldiers •Missionaries •Merchants and traders •Emigration was risky and could bring isolation in the new land •Male migrants outnumber females •Social and labor problems abounded as cities tried to accommodate the Social growing migrant population growing Migrations Migrations • Most went to the US in the hopes of benefiting from political and economic freedoms. Yet, most immigrants to the US were corralled into poor urban ghettos such as New York’s Lower East Side. • Many Jews migrated from western Russia due to increased violence and political oppression. • As Zionist ideology became more popular among European Jews, many migrated to Palestine. Peoples in Motion • • • Few restrictions anywhere until Few 1914 1914 • U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act, U.S. 1892 1892 • Most viewed immigrants as a Most positive force in the economy positive Cities boomed and led to the idea Cities of city planning of Urban life transformed women’s Urban lives lives • More jobs available • Increased literacy and cheaper Increased reading materials reading • Ready-made clothes and Ready-made goods allowed women more leisure time leisure Worldwide Insecurities •Imperial rivalries come home •The creation of a European-centered world The deepened rivalries within Europe and promoted instability promoted •The unification of Italy and of Germany The smashed the old balance of power smashed •New alliances appeared pitting Britain, New France, and Russia against Germany France, •An arms race ensued as conflict An heightened heightened Worldwide Insecurities •Financial, industrial, and technological insecurities •Small-scale, laissez-faire capitalism had given way to an Small-scale, economic order dominated by huge corporate firms economic •Instead of smooth progress, the economy of the West bounced Instead between booms and busts between •Financiers became important as borrowing and lending became Financiers instrumental in industrial growth instrumental •Banks in London were at the center of global finances •Journalists in the United States increasingly exposed the Journalists skullduggery that many of these financial and industrial giants committed to enrich or empower themselves committed •Reformers soon called for greater governmental regulation •Wealthy industrialists such as J. P. Morgan used their money Wealthy to make banks solvent to •In 1913, the United States created the Federal Reserve In System to oversee the nation’s money and bankers System Worldwide Insecurities •National economic matters increasingly became international affairs •In 1907, a financial crisis in the United States provoked similar crises In in Canada, Mexico, and Egypt in •Industrialization spread to places such as Russia, but remained uneven •Southern Europe and the American South lagged behind northern Southern regions regions Most colonies lacked industrial enterprises except mines and railroads •Economic progress came at a cost •Trains and ships connected local communities to the wider world, but Trains often destroyed local customs often •Factories produced cheaper goods but polluted the countryside •“Scientific management” often left workers as nothing more than Scientific cogs in a machine cogs •Cities also housed millions in crowded, disease-ridden slums •Conflicts between the rich and when city administrations tried the Conflicts poor abounded, particularly to improve on or beautify urban blight poor The “Woman Question” •Women in Western countries increasingly Women challenged the idea of separate spheres challenged •At century’s end, women were increasingly At employed as teachers, secretaries, typists, department store clerks, and telephone operators and thus gained some social and economic independence economic •Women also gained greater access to Women education and many of them entered previously all-male professions previously •Other women became involved in public Other reform movements reform •Many women began to limit the amount of Many children they had children •Contraceptives were illegal in most Contraceptives countries, but women found ways around the laws laws John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor • JS Mill supported women’s complete enfranchisement. • After the death of his wife Harriet in 1858, he published The Subjection of Women which argued that the family was an outdated structure that denied modern concepts of rights and freedom to women. • He further claimed that women’s voluntary obedience to their husbands was a form willful enslavement. • The influence of Social Darwinism, however, left Mill’s ideas on the margins of social thought at the time. The “Woman Question” •The push for woman’s The suffrage increased, but had very limited success had •Middle-class women Middle-class were not seeking gender equality, despite seeking a greater public role greater •Radicalized women, Radicalized however, did challenge the established order the Cultural Modernism? Cultural • Cultural modernism of the late 19th century was a reaction to the positvism of the era. • It was the self-conscious sense of having broken with tradition. tradition. • It replaced the certainties and optimism of the Enlightenment belief in progress and the positivist sciences with the anxieties and uncertainties of the modern age. and • It reflected a loss of confidence in the “civilizing missions” that were part of the lure of European imperialism, and also of the new and alien forms of urban life and industrialization. the • It was also the intellectual, aesthetic, and popular attempts to make sense of a world that had lost its innocence due to the social, political, economic, scientific, and technological transformations that occurred about the time of the turn of the 20th century. 20th 19th Century Positivism 19th • Positivism was a philosophy that claimed that the only valid knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from a positive affirmation of theories with strict scientific observations. with • It was developed by Auguste Comte in the middle of the 19th century. century. • Comte saw the scientific method replacing metaphysics in the history of thought. history • Positivism reflected the optimism of the Enlightenment along with the social benefits of industrialization. industrialization. Auguste Comte (French, 1798-1857) Paris Universal Exposition or World’s Fair 1889 Paris • Created on the 100th anniversary of the start of the French Revolution, and to celebrate “progress resulting from 100 years of freedom.” from • Featured the latest in industrial invention and music and culture from the conquered territories of the French empire. the • The main attraction was the Eiffel Tower. Thousands flocked to see the world’s tallest structure. Gustave Eiffel used the same iron skeletal technology in the structure of the Statue of Liberty, a French gift to the US in 1885. 1885. Eiffel Tower, 1889, Paris Industry and Nation Building • Underlying the force of European nation states was economic and technological power. • New industrial products such as the bicycle, typewriter, telephone, incandescent light bulb, mass transportation, subways, bridges, skyscrapers. • Innovations in various technologies such as steel, electricity, chemical, and internal combustion engine. • Between 1870 and 1880 iron production increased from 11 million tons to 23 million tons. • Historians used to call this a “second industrial revolution,” but that only applied to Britain where a “first” industrial revolution (textile, steam) occurred much earlier. In most other European countries, the two revolutions happened simultaneously. • Industrial growth was most rapid in Britain, Germany and the US, all of whom by the end of the 19th century were acquiring empires. Gallery of Machines, 1889 Gallery Economic Crisis 1873 • Within two years after the Franco-Prussian War, the European economy stalled, beginning a cycle that lasted three decades. • The economic downturn affected the globe because of trade within European empires. • Most industrialists had focused on production and not on distribution and consumption. • Workers had to work longer hours, produce more, and receive little or no compensation for the difference. Workers were not able to afford the products they were producing. • The economic slumps forced industrialists to focus on their workers. • The limited liability corporation was created to protect business people from personal responsibility for a firm’s debt. This was designed to encouraged investment. • As a result, by the end of the 19th century, stock markets traded heavily in industrial stock, increasing the pool of private capital. Revolution in Business Practices Revolution • In the late 1800s, industrialists hired managers to handle their increasingly complex day-to-day businesses. complex • “White-collar” sectors appeared with White-collar” people in offices, distinct from the “blue-collar” workers on the factory floor. floor. • Banks, telephone, railroad, and insurance companies created new areas of white-collar employment. areas • Educate middle-class women began to pursue careers in these areas, despite ideological restrictions keeping many bourgeois women in the domestic sphere. the • Women were often hired by industrialists, though they were paid far less than men in the same positions. positions. Consumer Capitalism Consumer Preventing Disease Preventing • In the late 19th century, scientific research was increasingly being put to use in the name of public health and to control the urban spread of disease that was widespread earlier in the century. widespread • Louis Pasteur perfected a method of food preservation. Pasteurization was the heating of milk or wine to prevent fermentation. Fermentation, he discovered was caused by the growth of bacteria. Through heating, the bacteria are killed. killed. • In the 1860s, Joseph Lister applied germ theory (micros that can’t be seen) medicine and suggested that surgeons wash thoroughly before working on a patient, thus reducing the spread of disease and infection. • Sewers and public toilets for men and women became commonplace in urban areas throughout Europe. commonplace Expanding Bureaucracy Expanding • Increased social order meant increased centralization and state bureaucracies to manage societies. societies. • France, Britain and the US all took regular censuses of their populations to find out detailed personal information such as age, occupation, marital status, number of children, residential patterns, fertility. patterns, • State bureaucracies also regulated prostitution and the spread communicable diseases such as syphilis. syphilis. • States began to keep vast records on behavior patterns of individuals and populations. patterns Professionalization and Citizenship Professionalization • New industries required a labor force that was more educated than before. educated • Schools and universities began to offer degrees in various professions in the sciences, medicine, and law, to middle class men. to • New curricula were now being offered from kindergarten through university that were designed to cultivate a sense of citizenship. citizenship. • illiteracy rates dropped. illiteracy The Culture of Social Order The • After the revolutions of 1848, artists and writers began to express misgivings about political oppression, economic growth, and the enfranchisement of middle-class men. enfranchisement • They began to lose the idealism that artists and writers had in the years following the French Revolution of 1789. • This disenchantment was called realism. realism • The reading public devoured biographies of famous people The • The novel The – Charles Dickens Charles – George Eliot George – Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovery: a story of a bored doctor’s Madame story wife who has a series of affairs and then commits suicide from guilt. wife • Poetry Poetry – Charles Baudelaire wrote explicitly about sex, drug induced hallucinations hallucinations • Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevksy wrote about the inner thoughts of criminals, in order to emphasize spirituality. criminals, Realism and Impressionism in Painting Realism • After 1848 artists rejected the romantic conventions of the earlier century. century. • Gustave Courbet’s Wrestlers Wrestlers (1850) emphasized physical struggle, reflecting the growing Realpolitik of the period. Realpolitik • Édouard Manet coined the term impressionism to emphasize a new way of representing light differently from the way photography does. photography • Using splotches and dots, impressionists captured the way light transformed an object, often painting the same scene at different times of day or of the year. Claude Monet, Impressions, Sunrise, 1872 New Directions in Science New • The English naturalist Charles Darwin had published On the Origin of Species On (1859). (1859). • The book challenged Judeo-Christian beliefs that human beings were unique creations of God, instead arguing that all livings beings slowly change over millions of years according to an evolutionary process. evolutionary • Natural selection, according to Natural according Darwin, functions by allowing only those species to survive which are the most fit or the strongest, genetically and in relation to the natural environment, through adaptation. environment, Charles Darwin (English, 1809-1882) Charles • Human beings evolved from other forms of life, Darwin suggested, because human ancestors were successful in surviving and reproducing within changing environments. within • Darwin’s ideas were met with criticism from both religious communities and secularists. – Catholics, Protestants, Jews condemned Darwin because his ideas were contrary to the creation story of the Bible. the – Secularists were equally condemning of Darwin because he showed nature to be a hostile and dynamic place, undermining the Enlightenment belief that nature was rational and harmonious. harmonious. From Darwinism to Social Darwinism From • A consequence of Darwin’s theory of natural selection in the natural world, was its application in the social world. was • Darwin himself argued that the legal, political, and economic privileges enjoyed by white European men in the late 19th century was because they were more highly evolved than white women or people of color. were • Despite having a common human ancestry, he believed that evolution was an unequal process, leaving some groups of humans far behind in intelligence and civilization. intelligence • Darwin believed that men were far more adept than women at performing most tasks. most • A school of thought derived from Darwin’s ideas, called Social Darwinism, sought to change public policy to reflect these views, advocating eugenics and other institutional forms of racism. and • Social Darwinism reinforced ideas about national identity and the civilizing missions of European empires. missions • Nonetheless, evolutionary theory stood the test of controversy, and scientific research, though greatly modified from Darwin’s original ideas, has found much biological and fossil evidence in support of natural selection. found Social Challenges during the Fin-de-siécle Fin-de-siécle • Increased European power and social mobility challenged social order at the turn of the century. turn • A falling birthrate, rising divorce rate, growing social activism, increased debates about reform. debates • Homosexuality was acknowledged as a way of life for the first time. • Women became more active in the public sector, and gained the vote in Finland in 1906. Finland • As birth control became more widely used, US president Theodore Roosevelt blamed the decline in population on the “selfishness of women” in the modern age. • Declines in fertility rates worried Social Darwinists that nations were in jeopardy. Darwinists Challenges to Positivist Views Challenges • Artists and intellectuals rejected the optimism of the 19th century. Transformations in belief, scientific knowledge, artistic perception, and thought reflected the contradictions of a world that was increasingly becoming more and more alien. more • Freud argued that unconscious drives, eros and thanatos, were repressed in eros thanatos were modern civilized life, and often emerge in neurotic behaviors. • The unconscious was a dark region of the human mind that escaped conscious awareness. • Through psychoanalysis patients could talk through their repressions and be cured of their neurotic behaviors. cured Friedrich Nietzsche (German, 1844-1900) Friedrich • More than any other thinker of the time he characterized the political, social, and cultural tensions and conflicts of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 19th • Nietzsche argued that all forms of life were driven by a “will to power,” meaning a drive to fulfill themselves, to “become what they are.” • Scientific truth was an illusion, for Nietzsche, a mere representation of a natural world that was alien and threatening, and could never be known directly. directly. • In his famous proclamation, “God is dead,” Nietzsche announced that Man would replace God. But man for Nietzsche was only a stage towards a higher and more perfect being called the Übermensch. Übermensch Albert Einstein (German, 1879-1955) Albert • He transformed the way scientists view the physical world by showing that Newtonian laws of motion do not apply uniformly throughout the universe. uniformly • According to the special theory of relativity (1905), space and time are not constants but vary according to the vantage point of the observer. vantage • Later he proposed a theorem for the conversion of mass into energy: E=mc2. conversion • His general theory of relativity related the gravity and mass of an object. the • His findings would be critical to later technological inventions such as television and nuclear weapons. television Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionism Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890) Expressionism Expressionism Edvard Munch Edvard (Norwegian, 1863-1944) (Norwegian, Cubism Cubism Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-1973) Abstract Expressionism Abstract Wassily Kandinsky (Russian, 1866-1944) The Rite of Spring, 1913 1913 • Igor Stravinsky and the Russian Ballet, first performance in Paris on May 13, 1913. on • The performance was hyped-up ahead of time. There are conflicting reports of what happened that night and why. happened • The performance was not what the Parisian audience was expecting of a ballet expecting • That night on the eve of war would come to symbolize the anxiety felt by Europeans about themselves and the future during the years between 1914 and 1939. 1939. Igor Stravinsky Igor by Pablo Picasso by Anti-Semitism and the Dreyfus Affair Anti-Semitism • In the years leading up to WW1, political leaders invoked anti-Semitism, social Darwinism, and nationalism as ways to mobilize specific groups. mobilize • As a result, Jews were seen as villains responsible for the tensions and conflicts of the modern age. of • Anti-Semitism, social Darwinism, and nationalism were instrumental in mass politics in these years. politics • A French army captain, Alfred Dreyfus, was charged with spying for Germany in 1894. He was Jewish and managed to attain a high position that traditionally had been reserved for Catholics and elites. been • Dreyfus’s sentencing did not stop the espionage, but the French upheld his guilt anyway. Anti-Semitism and the Dreyfus Affair Anti-Semitism • Several newspapers then published proof of Dreyfus’s innocence, that the army had fabricated documents and used perjured testimony to convict him. used • In 1898, the novelist Émile Zola published “J’Accuse” citing a series a military lies and cover ups used to frame Dreyfus. • Zola named names of high officials in the government who were responsible. who • “J’Accuse” stirred hostility in Paris, led to public riots, J’Accuse” and eroding confidence in the government institutions. and • In 1899, Dreyfus was finally pardoned, and corrupt officials were ousted from office. officials • Nonetheless, the Dreyfus Affair became a standard form of anti-Semitism for the next several decades. form Russia Russia • Russia resisted Western imperialism while at the same time was heavily influenced by Western ideas and culture. • However, Russia resisted becoming outright Westernized, maintaining its own cultural identity. Westernized, • It began to industrialize by the end of the 19th and early in the 20th centuries, although Russia did not fully industrialize until after World war I. fully • Tsarist Russia became imperialist in the years leading up to the war. leading Industrialization Industrialization • Unlike other European states, Russia did not have a history of colonialism and therefore did not have the mass wealth and capital that was required for industrialization. industrialization. • Its government played a greater role in shaping industry, more so than Western governments who left industries to develop more freely. left • Russia had to navigate the uncertain conditions of rapid industrialization, the effects of which produced a revolutionary climate. revolutionary Russia Russia • By the mid 19th century Russia had continued to expand its territory its • Russian society had remained largely the same as it had for centuries: • Serfdom continued Serfdom • Russian Tsars were successful at keeping away the revolutionary impulses that were sweeping through Europe. Europe. • Since 1791 the western parts of Russia were consigned to European Jews in what was called the Pale of Settlement. Pale Russia and the Vienna Congress of 1815 Russia • Since the fall of Napoleon and the Vienna Congress of 1815, Russia saw itself as essential to maintaining the conservative order of Europe. of • Russia had acquired Poland as part of the treaty, which satisfied some of its needs to expand westward into Europe. some Russia after the Congress of Vienna, 1815 Russia • Tsar Alexander I of Russia proposed a Holy Alliance that would establish a divine relation among member nations and act as a buffer against a future French threat. • Prussia and Austria joined Russia, but Britain rejected it as “too mystical”. Britain • Pope Pius VII refused it as a challenge to Catholic authority. to • In spite of the attempt to reassert religion in international political affairs, the Vienna Congress reinforced the legitimacy of diplomacy and the treaty system, and not divine right. system, • The Holy Alliance became the precursor for the “Eastern Bloc” system that Soviet Russia constructs after World War II. Russia Quadruple Alliance, Quadruple 1815 1815 Holy Alliance, 1815 1815 Russia in the 19th Century Russia • In December 1825 Russian military officers who wanted reform revolted against the Tsarist government. Tsarist • The Decembrist Revolt was crushed but Tsar Nicholas I implemented new conservative policies. conservative • In 1830-31 Catholics and liberal aristocrats in Poland revolted against the Tsar’s control and wanted national independence. and • During the revolutions of 1848, Nick I helped other monarchs such as the Habsburgs by sending in troops. Habsburgs • During the Crimean War (1853-1856) Russia attempted to take territory from the Ottoman Turks. Ottoman • Russia’s defeat brought about its most significant event of the 19th century significant The End of Serfdom The • After defeat in the Crimean After War in 1856, Russian Tsar Alexander II issued a number of decrees freeing the serfs in 1861. the • The idea was to catch up The economically with Western industrialization. industrialization. • However many former serfs However still lived in extreme poverty and many eventually worked in iron ore mines or factories. factories. • Although the freeing of the Although serfs created a large urban labor force, Russian agricultural practices remained as they had been for centuries. for Russian Modernization Russian • In addition to freeing the serfs, Alex II In launched a series of “Great Reforms” designed to make Russia more competitive with the West, without modifying the autocracy of the Tsars. modifying – Reduction military service from 25 to Reduction 6 years. years. – Mass schooling for Russian children. – Construction of the Trans-Siberian Construction Railroad. Railroad. – Built factories – Steel, coal, and petroleum industries Steel, expanded. expanded. – Many peasants (former serfs) went to Many work in the Russian coal mines. work • Although Russian officials reformed Although Russian society and its economy, Russian government remained unaltered. unaltered. TransTransSiberian Siberian Railroad Railroad Russian Politics Russian • • • • Many Russians began to question the state-led modernization efforts, Many and denounced the Tsarist regime. and Revolutionaries had been outlawed in Russia for many years. In 1881 a terrorist’s bomb blew Alexander II to pieces. In the 1890s Marxist ideas began to circulate throughout Russia for In the first time. the Russian Anarchism Russian • Many Russians wanted more Many than just reforms of government. Some advocated the abolition of all forms of government. The were called anarchists. anarchists • The anarchists, led by Mikhail The Bakunin, believed that the tsarist autocracy was responsible for the misery of the Russian people. people. • Many anarchists took to extreme Many violence to further their cause because there were few other outlets available for political change in Russia. change • Assassinations and bombings Assassinations were an essential part of their tactics. tactics. Russia and Marxism Russia • By 1900 Russia was fraught with contradictory impulses: – Poor peasantry who largely ignored politics – Increasing industrialization and urbanization – A stagnant tsarist autocracy – A growing class of intellectuals who were increasingly growing demanding revolution--although they disagreed how this should come about. should • After Russia had suffered another military defeat, this time After with Japan in 1905, a revolution broke out. with • Massive strikes and peasant insurrections occurred. • The Tsar successfully put a stop to the uprisings but not to The end the dissatisfaction of the Russian peasants. end • Russian Marxists such as Vladimir Lenin argued that Russian Russia’s misery was due to the imperialism of the Russian Tsar and his desire to emulate the capitalist West at the expense of the Russian peasant and worker. expense • He also demanded that Russia not enter WWI because it He did not nothing for the Russian worker. did Conclusion Conclusion • The period leading up to WW1 was marked by increased tensions due to a variety of factors such as economic crises, increased industrialization and urbanization, popularization of political ideologies such as nationalism, socialism, and Social Darwinism, and the struggle for empires. and • Artists, intellectuals, and scientists were seeing the world in new ways, in opposition to the intellectual optimism of the 19th century. For them the future now seemed uncertain and the human ability to know the natural world in rational ways was crumbling due to new scientific findings. scientific • Dissonance, abstraction, distortion, unconscious drives for lust and destruction, fear, racism, these marked the social and cultural tensions in the years leading to WW1. tensions • By 1914, the major European powers made real what had only been apparent up until then. The horrors of World War I would reinforce the anxiety of the pre-war years and set the stage for even more radical forms of politics in the 20th century: totalitarianism. totalitarianism Conclusion Russia avoided the major effects of European imperialism, while adopting Western forms of modernization. forms Russia became empires in their own right. Russia Russia engaged in rapid industrialization projects that launched them as major powers well into the 21st century. well Russia also became susceptible to totalitarian politics. totalitarian Terms Terms Pale of Settlement Pale Anarchism Anarchism cultural modernism cultural • Übermensch Übermensch • Cubism Cubism ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course HISTORY 2 taught by Professor Hill during the Spring '10 term at Irvine Valley College.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online