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lecture 12 world war 1

lecture 12 world war 1 - WAR 1914-1918 Why War Why •...

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Unformatted text preview: WAR 1914-1918 Why War? Why • Origins and conduct of WW1 set the pattern for 20th century conflicts. for • The war destroyed 4 great multinational empires: empires: • Tsarist Russia Tsarist • Ottoman Empire Ottoman • Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary • German Empire German • Beginning of the end of European hegemony and the beginning of the era of the superpowers (US vs. USSR) superpowers • Produced doubts about liberal democracy. Produced • Gave credence to fascism, communism and national socialism. national • First instances of genocide. First • Total War: militarization and mobilization of entire societies entire • Individual rights become subordinate to state power state • heavy use of propaganda heavy Wars and Conflicts 1859-1913 Wars • War of Italian Liberation, 1859 War • Austro-Prussian War, 1866 Austro-Prussian • Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71 Franco-Prussian • Russo-Turkish War, 1875-78 Russo-Turkish • Fashoda (East Africa), 1894 Fashoda • Sino-Japanese War, 1895 Sino-Japanese • Spanish-American War, 1898 Spanish-American • Boer War (South Africa), 1902 Boer • Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Russo-Japanese • Moroccan Crises of 1905, 1911 Moroccan • Balkan Crises and Wars, 1908Balkan 9, 1911-12, 1913 Moroccan Crises, 1905 Long Term Causes of the War War • Nationalism Nationalism • Imperialism Imperialism • Alliance System Alliance • Arms Race Arms • Militarism Militarism • Social and cultural tensions cultural Imperialism Imperialism Alliance System System • Entente Cordiale Entente • Britain Britain • France France • Russia Russia • Triple Alliance Triple • Germany Germany • AustriaHungary Hungary • Italy (did not join the Central Powers because of the secret Treaty of London.) London.) Arms Race Arms Militarism Among European Nation-States Militarism • Militarism in society grew out of the conviction that the army was essential to the protection and future of the nation. If you didn’t support the army you were unpatriotic and an enemy of the nation. unpatriotic • The military became the model for how society should function: discipline, regulation, hierarchy, honor, glory, patriotism, etc. patriotism, • Modern urban life had become disordered and chaotic, challenged the tradition beliefs and values. and • Militarism was appealing to conservatives who were critics of modernization. who • Social Darwinism: war was a way of Social war cleansing society, of making it more “racially pure.” War was part of hygiene “racially • It was “fun” and exciting, appealed to youth. youth. War by Timetable War • European armies on the eve of war European • Most soldiers were conscripted, lured by duty and patriotism duty • “Doctrine of the Offensive”: wars before WW1 Doctrine were short, victory went to the offenders • Russo-Japanese War went to the Japanese because of their “fighting spirit,” though Russia had a superior military. had • The war planners thought long wars impossible, stockpiles would run out, economies could not replenish supplies. could • Military planners wanted civilians out of the war planning process. war • Use of machine gun was not considered in the planning, it offended the aristocratic soldier depersonalized battle, removed face-to-face conflict. conflict. New War Technologies New • Mustard and chlorine gas: designed to fill the trenches; caused much suffering. caused • Submarine: very effective; sank Lusitania. • Tank: could go through wire and over trenches. over • Airplane: Use of the Fokker to sync machine gun with propeller. sync • Zeppelin: air raids Zeppelin: • Medicine: vaccines Medicine: Balkan States Balkan • Balkan peoples were largely successful in achieving their independence from the Ottoman Empire. from • Increased independence sparked nationalist rivalries. Increased • The Russians, the Ottomans, and the Austro-Hungarians each wanted influence in the region, and exaggerated the conflicts. influence Balkans in 1878 Balkans in 1912 June 28, 1914: Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand Archduke July Crisis July • June 28 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian “Black Hand” Ferdinand • July 5 Germany’s “blank check” to A-H July • July 23 Austrian 48-hr ultimatum to Serbia July • July 25 Serbia accepts ultimatum with caveats caveats • July 26 A-H rejects British offer of mediation mediation • July 28 A-H declaration of war against Serbia Serbia • July 29 Germany tries to secure British neutrality neutrality • July 30 Russia orders general mobilization July • August 1 France and Germany mobilize; Germany declares war on Russia Germany • August 2 Germany invades Luxembourg August • August 3 Germany invades Belgium; declares war on France declares • August 4 Britain declares war on Germany August • August 5 A-H declares war on Russia August Kaiser Wilhelm II Kaiser (Germany, r.1888-1918) r.1888-1918) Schlieffen Plan and Plan XVII Schlieffen • France had amassed soldiers along Germany’s border, creating an obstacle to invasion. invasion. • Belgium was neutral and protected by Britain in the event of an attack. Britain • Alfred von Schlieffen devised the plan which would allow for a two-front war: which • A quick blow to the west and invasion and occupation of France in 6 weeks. • A light army remains in France and the bulk of the army heads east to fight Russia. Russia. • France had its own plan. It necessitated a quick offensive blow to the center, dividing German forces in conjunction with Russian pressure in the east. pressure • The idea was that Germany would surrender in a matter of weeks. surrender • Both the Schlieffen Plan and Plan XVII did not take into consideration the alliance system. The “Rape of Belgium” The European Fronts European • Failure of the Schlieffen Plan led to a trench war. led • “Race to the Sea” • Stalemate 1915-1918 Stalemate • War of Attrition: competing sides willing to sacrifice the maximum number of soldiers in continuous battle designed to wear down the enemy. wear • Verdun Feb-July 1916, German attack; Germany loses 100,000; France loses 120,000 France • Somme July-Dec 1916, British attack; British lose 400,000; gain 6 only miles only • Ypres 1917, British lose 400,000; French lose 50,000 400,000; The Western Front The Trench Warfare Trench Fraternizing with the Enemy the • On some occasions ordinary soldiers resisted the orders of their superiors and refused to engage in battle, and even fraternized with the enemy. enemy. • One memorable incident was the “Christmas Truce of 1914” when for a few hours, soldiers agreed to lay down their weapons. Initiated by the Germans, soldiers played soccer, laughed and joked in the “no man’s land” dividing the trenches. land” • By 1915, army superiors put an end to fraternizing with the enemy. end The Great War as a World War World The Great War as a World War World • The war was fought for empires, but also relied on colonial populations to supply soldiers on the battlefields. supply • Soldiers from all of the European empires fought in the war. Most were conscripted and were placed at the front lines where the fighting was most severe. most • Fighting not only took place in Europe, but also in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and on the oceans. oceans. “Total War” “Total War” • Because it was largely a technological war, this required a reorganization of industries to manufacture munitions and supplies, and also a mobilization of citizens in the war effort. war • The creation of a “home front” in the service of “total war” meant that entire societies were directly involved in the war effort. war • Women worked in civilian jobs that traditionally were held by men. men. • Every nation used propaganda to promote its cause cause Women and War Women • During wartime women worked in munitions factories and other jobs because men were off fighting on the front lines. lines. • Employing women was controversial because many soldiers worried that their jobs would be gone when the war ended. Also, many men worried that the blurred distinction between public and private spheres would have socially devastating effects on relations between men and women. women. • For many women, especially feminists, it meant proving to men that they could perform jobs just as well as men could. jobs Women and War and • Women were also seen by war planners as a key for the mobilization of male soldiers. • In Britain, the “White Feather” movement was very controversial: women would hand to men who were not in uniform a white feather, implying cowardice because they were not fighting at the front. fighting • Images of women were often used as the subjects of propaganda posters in order to persuade them to get their men to sign up for the military. Some implied that women would offer sexual favors to enlisted men. men. Women and War Women French War Propaganda Propaganda German War Propaganda German British War Propaganda British War Propaganda to Conserve Food to US War Propaganda Propaganda Genocide in Armenia Genocide • The Ottoman Empire joined the war on the side of the Central Powers in August 1914. August • The empire was composed of several large ethnic-religious populations. Many Kurds did not abide by the Sultan’s orders; Arabs, Armenians, and Greeks wanted autonomy. Greeks • In 1915 the Young Turks who ruled the Ottomans, declared that the Armenians in Eastern Anatolia had been collaborating with the Russians and rebelling against the Turks. and • in April the Turks began deporting Armenians and executing women and children in the eastern provinces. children • 1.5 million Armenians lost their lives from firing squads, hunger and disease in the 20th century’s first case of genocide. genocide. Telegram from Telegram Ambassador Henry Morgenthau to the US State Dept., describing the Armenian massacre as “race extermination.” extermination.” Discontent with the War Discontent • By 1917, Europe lay in ruins. Millions of soldiers had lost their lives, many more civilians were suffering from the war’s effects. The pre-war support for the war had dwindled and discontent raged through Europe. through • Citizens began to revolt in European cities. High prices and food shortages provoked riots. Tenants went on rent strikes. Factory and white-collar workers walked off of their jobs. Women workers protested the long hours they had to work. protested • The emperor of Austria-Hungary secretly asked the Allies for a negotiated peace settlement. settlement. • US President Woodrow Wilson further weakened the drive for war among the Central Powers by introducing his Fourteen Points. Fourteen Wilson’s Fourteen Points, 1918 Wilson’s • In early 1917, Germany unsuccessfully tried to enlist Mexico on the side of the Central Powers (the Zimmerman Telegram). They also resumed submarine attacks on ships carrying supplies from the US to Britain. Britain. • The US Congress had wanted to stay out of the war, but Wilson argued that the Central Powers were a direct threat. He claimed that the US should enter the war in order “to make the world safe for democracy.” war • By 1918, Wilson had proposed his Fourteen Points as his vision of post war peace. his • The main principle was the right to selfselfdetermination among former European colonies. • Other important ideas were the public diplomacy, removal of trade barriers, arms reductions, return of Alsace-Lorraine back to France, creation of an independent Poland, and the establishment of a League of Nations for the purpose of maintaining League peace (the blueprint was the Treaty of Westphalia). peace Bolshevik Revolution, 1917 Bolshevik Bolshevik Revolution, 1917 Bolshevik • Meanwhile, exiled Russian socialist Vladimir Lenin had proposed his own solution for getting Russia out of the war. Russia • Russia had sustained the most casualties: 7.5 million by 1917. Because Russia was still largely an agrarian society--having ended serfdom in the 19th century--most Russian peasants suffered immensely from the hardships caused by war. immensely • in February, female textile workers and housewives took to the streets demanding food and to mark International Women’s Day. The following day, 200,000 protesters joined them, but Russian soldiers fired on them killing hundreds. Russian • Tsar Nicholas II relied on Grigori Rasputin, holy man and charlatan, for disastrous advice that did little to help the Russians. • In March 1917 again riots erupted and Nicholas abdicated the throne, ending the 300 year Romanov dynasty. Nicholas and his family were killed. “Peace, Land, and Bread” • A Provisional Government was established, composed of moderates who wanted to manage the war more efficiently. who • Spontaneously elected soviets, or councils of workers and soldiers, soviets or competed with the government for political support of the population. • In April, Lenin was granted safe passage through Germany to join in the political events that were unfolding in Russia. the • Lenin’s group of socialists were called Bolsheviks: Marxists who Bolsheviks Marxists believed that a communist state did not have to pass through the did economic stage of capitalism. The majority, or Mensheviks, argued Mensheviks argued that Russia would have to develop a capitalist industry before a communist state of proletariats could emerge. communist • In his radical April Theses, Lenin declared that Russia should pull out April Lenin of the war because it was an imperialist war, and that the Provisional Government should be abolished and workers’ soviets should rule Russia. All private land should be nationalized. Lenin believed that WW1 would mark the end of bourgeois capitalism, and that communism would emerge victorious, in Russia first then elsewhere. communism • Slogans: “All power to the soviets” and “peace, land, and bread.” Slogans: October 1917 October • Aleksandr Kerensky, the leader of the PG, was unsuccessful in getting support from the tired, hungry and war-weary Russian soldiers, workers and peasants. Russian • On October 24, Bolshevik troops and armed workers called Red Guards took control of bridges and railways stations. control • Kerensky fled, and on October 25, 1917, Lenin’s Bolsheviks marched unimpeded into the Winter Palace. Lenin declared the PG overthrown, and that the task now was to build a “proletarian socialist state.” was • In January, 1918, when elections failed to give the Bolsheviks a plurality, the Bolsheviks took over the government by force. force. • In the winter 1918/1919, the Bolsheviks nationalized peasant land in order to restore production. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918 Treaty • In March of 1918, Leon Trotsky, People’s Commissar and leader of the Red Army, made a deal with Germany to end the fighting in the east. end • The treaty granted Germany the Baltic states, Poland, Finland, and much of the Ukraine south of Kiev, partially fulfilling the German goal of conquering Mitteleuropa. Mitteleuropa • The Bolsheviks relocated the Russian capital to Moscow because Petrograd was too close to German-controlled territory. territory. • The treaty also meant the Bolsheviks had achieved Lenin’s goal of ending the Russian participation in the imperialist war. war. Russian Civil War, 1917-1922 Russian • Not all Russians embraced communism, and in 1917 civil war broke out between a loosely-allied group of non-communists (White Army) and the Bolsheviks (Red Army). Bolsheviks • Among the Whites were tsarist military supporters, landlords, aristocrats, any soldiers they could get, dispossessed businessmen, liberal intelligentsia, nonbusinessmen, Russian nationalists. The French, Russian British--once allies of Tsarist Russia-British--once along with the US and Japan, sent along troops to fight the Reds. The first and only time US soldiers fought communists on Russian soil. on • Ultimately the resistance failed. Ultimately War Communism War • Trotsky and Lenin introduced War Communism where workers and troops moved throughout the countryside confiscating land and food. food. • The secret police force, the Cheka, Cheka set up detention camps for political resisters, and black marketeers, many of whom were killed without trial. trial. • Lenin also expanded the centralized bureaucracy, undermining the authority of the soviets, democracy, and contrary to the Marxist goal of the “withering away of the state.” the Revolution in Germany Revolution • By the spring of 1918 the Central Powers had been weakened. The German army suffered over two million casualties in the spring and summer alone. summer • In October, the German command convinced inexperienced politicians to form a new government, setting them up for responsibility for the war. These politicians claimed that they could still win the war and that it was only the weak civilians who wanted to end it. only • A final sea battle was suggested, but German sailors decided it was suicide and mutinied against their officers. suicide • This sparked uprising throughout Germany. On November 9, 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm II fled Germany. Kaiser • Germans declared themselves a republic and on November 11, 1918, armistice was signed by all of the belligerent powers. armistice • Meanwhile, the reverberations of the Bolshevik Revolution were spreading across a war-torn Europe. Many soldiers formed volunteer armies. Germany was unstable. • Various socialist groups competed with the Social Democrats who formed the new German parliamentary government. formed Revolution in Germany Revolution • One group, the Sparticists, was led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Unlike the Bolsheviks, who argued that the party should lead the workers, the Sparticists supported uprisings allowing the workers to get direct political experience. But like Lenin, they despised parliamentary politics. despised • Social Democratic leader Friedrich Ebert called on young German soldiers and the Freikorps paramilitary groups to suppress the Sparticists. paramilitary • In February 1919 the Weimar Republic was formed and the political right resisted the new republic and favored a monarchy. republic • German socialism was crushed as the Freikorps kidnapped Liebknecht and Luxemburg, and tortured and killed them in 1919. and Paris Peace Conference Versailles, 1919 Paris Peace Conference, 1919 • At the talks, the spread of communism was the big worry. the • But first, the leaders had to deal with a warBut ravaged Europe, what to do with Germany. • The French were angry because they lost 1.3 million soldiers, and suffered heavy damage to infrastructure. damage • The British wanted severe penalties on Germany. Germany. • The Italians wanted territory promised them in the Treaty of London. in • The US, who emerged from the war stronger than ever before, wanted support for Wilson’s 14 Points, including right to selfWilson’s determination among peoples in the defeated determination empires of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire, and approval of the League of Nations. League Paris Peace Conference, 1919 • France and Britain wanted heavy penalties to be placed on Germany, who did not have a voice at the talks. Wilson recognized that Germany was still the most powerful nation-state in Europe, and felt that the goal should be to balance power rather than inflict heavy war reparations. It could also lead to a rise of German vengefulness. rise • In the end, Germany lost much territory to a new state of Poland, which acted as a buffer between Germany and Russia, and also handed back Alsace-Lorraine back to France who placed an occupying army in the region. German had to pay heavy war debts which caused an economic crisis in the 1920s. 1920s. • Austria and Hungary were divided and the Balkans were split into several new states: Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom ot the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, later named Yugoslavia. Slovenes, • Poland was formed out of territory from Russia, Germany, and A-H. Poland • The former Ottoman Empire now became Turkey on the Anatolian Peninsula. New states of Syria, Palestine, Trans-Jordan, and Iraq were created as “mandates” of Britain and France. These peoples were denied self-determination as Wilson defined it. They resisted the continued imperialism of Europe. imperialism Europe and the Middle East, 1919 Aftermath of the Great War Terms Terms • “Doctrine of the Offensive” • Black Hand Black • Schlieffen Plan Schlieffen • “Total War” • self-determination self-determination • Provisional Government Provisional • soviet soviet • Bolshevik Bolshevik ...
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