lecture 13 between the wars

Lecture 13 between - Between the Wars 1919-1939 1919-1939 Blah The League of Nations 1920 The Economic Crisis in the Weimar Republic Economic •

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Unformatted text preview: Between the Wars 1919-1939 1919-1939 Blah The League of Nations, 1920 The Economic Crisis in the Weimar Republic Economic • The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Talks had devastating effects on Europe. effects • Two intertwined issues: Two • economic recovery • preventing Germany from rearming. preventing • The new Weimar Republic needed to persuade its citizens that parliamentary democracy was the correct path, and thus refused to collect more taxes to pay off the war debt owed to the victors. • In 1921, in response to the Germans’ failure to develop a plan to pay reparations, the French army occupied the Ruhr, an industrial region in western Germany. western Between the Wars 1919-1939 Between • With little assistance from Western Europe, Germany turned to Russia for assistance. Russia also was eager to establish foreign trade. trade. • In 1923, after Germany refused to deliver coal, France and Belgium sent in more troops to gain some direct benefits from the Ruhr region. Ruhr • Citizens of the Ruhr resisted French occupation by refusing to go to work. go • The Weimar government generated trillions of worthless marks to help pay of their debt, which sent the German economy into crisis. crisis. • The League of Nations and the US came to German assistance with the Dawes Plan (1924) and the Young Plan (1929) both of which eased payments to the allies. which Disarmament and Peace in the 1920s Disarmament • The Washington Conference (1921): US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy agreed to reduce the number of battleships produced for ten years. years. • Treaty of Locarno (1926) provided Germany with a seat the League of Nations. with • In the east, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania formed the “Little Entente” in 1920Romania 1921, a collective security agreement against 1921, further German aggression. France also allied itself with the Little Entente and Poland. itself • All of the major European powers, the US and Japan signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928), a formal rejection of international violence. formal • In spite of these attempts at formal peace, no concrete resolutions were put in place, and the League had no means of enforcing the treaties. League Women Suffrage Women • Women suffrage resulted from decades of activism, but also governments granted the vote as a reward for their service during the war, and to keep them from siding with communists. communists. • In the first postwar European elections women gained parliamentary seats. women • The French denied women the vote because French men were convinced they would bring kings and priests back into power (!). power • Governments also increased welfare programs to assist families with children, especially in countries such as France, who lost many men in the war. lost Women Suffrage Women • Finland 1906 Finland • Norway 1913 Norway • Denmark 1915 Denmark • Iceland 1915 Iceland • Netherlands 1917 Netherlands • Russia 1917 Russia • Britain 1918 Britain • Czechoslovakia 1918 Czechoslovakia • Germany 1919 Germany • Austria 1920 Austria • US 1920 US • Poland 1921 Poland • Hungary 1925 Hungary • Italy 1945 Italy • France 1945 France • Switzerland 1971 Switzerland Taylorism and Fordism Taylorism • Meanwhile, in the US, Henry Ford revolutionized production with the invention of the assembly line, and in 1929 a car was produced every ten seconds. The low cost of production made the automobile more affordable. By the late 1920s, the US had 17 million cars on the road. million • Frederick Taylor developed the science of management to increase worker productivity in factories. His ideas were adopted during WW1. Increased productivity would increase prosperity and workers and management both would develop common interests, according to Taylor. to • Taylorism was also used by Lenin in organizing the relationship between workers and the Bolshevik party in the new USSR. and Mass Culture Mass • In the 1920s, radio, film, and newspapers expanded their influence. These media were also used as propaganda tools for the rise of authoritarian regimes: Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin each used media to control the masses into political obedience. masses • Filmmaking was revolutionized in the 1920s. In Berlin, filmmakers such as Fritz Lang developed elaborate sets and new uses of light and shadow to depict his futuristic vision in Metropolis (1926). Metropolis Other German films such as The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) depicted a sane of asylum as a metaphor for state power. Charlie Chaplin represented the “Little Tramp” as a defeated hero, an anonymous man in the modern world. anonymous Radio Radio • Guglielmo Marconi developed wireless technology around the turn of the century. of • In the early 1920s radio broadcasts were heard in large concert halls, but soon became affordable for mass consumption as well. consumption • It transformed the home, brought the public sphere into the living room. room. • Specialized programming was designed for men, women, and children. children. • By the 1930s, politicians were using radio for campaign promotion. using Bertolt Brecht on Radio Bertolt • In 1926, the German playwright and Marxist, Bertolt Brecht criticized radio as a one-way form of information dissemination which isolates individuals rather than bringing them together. bringing • In the following passage, Brecht’s critique of broadcast technology anticipates the interactivity of the internet: technology • “Radio is one sided when it should be two. It is purely Radio an apparatus for distribution, for mere sharing out. So here is a positive suggestion: change this apparatus over from distribution to communication. The radio would be the finest possible communication apparatus in public life, a vast network of pipes. That is to say, it would be if it knew how to receive as well as transmit, how to let the listener speak as well as hear, how to bring him into a relationship instead of isolating him. On this principle the radio should step out of the supply business and organize its listeners as suppliers.” (Brecht, “The Radio as an Apparatus of Communication,” 1926) as The Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance Harlem • In the 1920s in Harlem, New York, the African American community gave birth to a new literary and art movement designed to celebrate African American culture in the aftermath of slavery, and the migration northward of former southern slaves. former • Performers such as the jazz trumpeter Louis Armstrong and the dancer Josephine Baker became international sensations. • White Americans and Europeans celebrated the new movement, but looked upon it as a sign of “primitivism,” thus consigning African American culture to an inferior status. inferior Langston Hughes (American, 1902-1967) Langston “The younger Negro artists who create The now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, it doesn't matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly, too. The tom-tom cries, and the tom-tom laughs. If colored people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, their displeasure doesn't matter either. We build our temples for tomorrow, strong as we know how, and we stand on top of the mountain free within ourselves.” (The Nation, 1926) ourselves.” Social Dystopias Social • Post-WW1 writers began to explore the relation of the individual to society in ways that shattered the 19th-century optimism in social progress. • Franz Kafka (Czech, 1883-1924), Marcel Proust (French, 1871-1922), James Joyce (Irish, 1882-1941), and Virgina Woolf (English, 1882-1941), each addressed the torment of the individual against the inhuman society in which their characters lived. • Influenced by Freud and his discovery of the unconscious drives of human beings, these writers delved into the darker sides of the modern psyche. Franz Kafka Franz Marcel Proust James Joyce Virginia Woolf The Great Depression Depression • In the 1920s, US corporations and individuals invested recklessly or borrowed money to invest. invest. • The Federal Reserve Bank decided to tighten the availability of credit, lenders demanded debtors to pay up, which led to run on US banks. run • Within a few weeks in 1929, the value of the US stock market dropped from $87 billion to $30 billion. billion. • The economic crisis led to tens of millions of unemployed workers worldwide. workers • The crisis was global because the US had funded much of the economic growth in the West FDR and the Rise of the Welfare State FDR • In the US, government undertook experiments to address the economic crisis. crisis. • Early in the Depression, President Herbert Hoover opposed federal assistance to help the unemployed, even using the military to stop protests by unemployed WW1 veterans. by • Franklin Delano Roosevelt defeated Hoover in the 1932 election and generated legislation called the “New Deal” which centralized federal assistance to support the poor. It also offered relief for business, supported prices for farmers, and created the WPA, the Works Progress Administration which employed thousands of workers on government projects. projects. FDR and the Rise of the Welfare State FDR • The Social Security Act of 1935 set up a fund in which employers and employees contributed. It offered retirement benefits, unemployment insurance, payments to dependent mothers, children, and those with disabilities. disabilities. • The New Deal was the hallmark of a trend in the West toward the “welfare state”, a society whose government provides a fundamental level of economic well-being for individuals and businesses. businesses. • Big business and the wealthy criticized the New Deal as leading towards socialism. socialism. • Throughout the 1930s FDR gained wide support for his programs during the Depression. Depression. The Social Effects of the Economic Crisis The • Despite the economic slump, modernization continued. Running water, sewage, and electricity were installed in homes in the industrialized west for the first time. industrialized • Most Europeans and Americans had jobs during the 1930s, though the threat of unemployment was always present. the • Nearly 20% of the population went without proper food, clothing and shelter during the decade. and • Poor women often found low paying domestic work. • Unemployed men often stayed home all day increasing tensions between men and women. Men increasingly engaged in domestic work which they considered to be the proper role of women. • Most Europeans blamed the parliamentary systems that governed much of Europe during the 1920s and 1930s for the economic hardships. hardships. • This climate of economic depression thus served as the prime condition for the rise of fascist and Nazi politics in the interwar years. They promised to restore prosperity and male dignity where European parliaments had failed. European The Global Effects of the Economic Crisis The • The economic crisis also accelerated the transformations taking place in the European empires. place • the Postwar period generated investment and economic development in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. development • However, the economic crisis of the 1930s limited the imports of raw resources to Europe. raw • Prices on rice and coffee fell putting farmers out of work. Prices • Yet in some places such as India, textile production increased. Yet • Many African and Asian veterans from the war received little help from Britain and France. help • The League of Nations charter intentionally left out any references to racial equality which was demanded at the Paris peace Talks in 1919. peace • Increased industrialization and dissatisfaction with the West led many colonized peoples to seek their independence from Europe. many Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) Mohandas • Upper-class Indians, workers and returning soldiers united with Gandhi to seek Indian independence from Britain. independence • Gandhi came from privilege, was educated in the West, and embraced Hindu self-denial. embraced • He advocated civil-disobedience and promoted boycotts against British-made goods. British-made • His goal was for Indians to put an end to their dependence and subservience to the British. subservience • He was jailed by the British who also tried to divide the independence movement by encouraging Muslims to resist Hindus. Hindus. The Middle East The The Middle East The • Ataturk led the Turks to form the independent state of Turkey in 1923. 1923. • He moved the national capital from Constantinople to Ankara, and changed the name of Constantinople to Istanbul. Constantinople • He also implemented Western style dress and other reforms designed to ally Turkish culture and society towards the West. and • In 1935, Persia forced the negotiation of oil contracts with Europe and also changed its name to Iran. to • In 1936, Egypt was granted selfIn rule as the British ended its rule military occupation. military Mustafa Kemal Mustafa Ataturk (1881-1938) (1881-1938) French Empire French • French trade with their colonies increased in the 1930s while their trade with the rest of Europe lagged. lagged. • The African and Asian populations of the French Empire increased during the 1930s giving hope that the French could resist the Germans if war should again break out. break • Western-educated leaders in the colonies resisted French control and the subjection of local populations. populations. • In 1930 the French crushed a peasant uprising by Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Indochinese Communist Party. Communist Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) The Rise of Totalitarian Dictatorships The • In the wake of the economic crisis of 1929, and the general discontent following WW1, Italy’s Benito Mussolini, the Soviet Union’s Joseph Stalin, and Germany’s Adolph Hitler gained mass support for their new radical politics. • Many people were lured to Mussolini and Hitler because of their message of utopian hope to people suffering from the effects of the war, economic hardship, and ideological defeat. economic • Both fascism and National Socialism advocated the use of violence, unity, and unity and obedience as substitutes for freedom and civil rights. rights. • Totalitarian governments are those that are Totalitarian highly centralized, attempt to control society, enforce social conformity through a single political party and widespread use of police terror. terror. • Totalitarianism emerged out of the war, broke with liberal politics and eventually turned against their own populations. against From Parliamentary Democracy to Authoritarianism From By the early 1920s most of Europe had parliamentary-style democracies. Yet, by the 1930s many European states had fallen to one form of authoritarian government: authoritarian • RUSSIA (Lenin), 1917 RUSSIA • HUNGARY (Horthy), 1919 HUNGARY • ITALY (Mussolini), 1922 ITALY • GREECE, 1922 GREECE, • BULGARIA, 1923 BULGARIA, • SPAIN, 1923 SPAIN, • TURKEY (Ataturk), 1923 TURKEY • ALBANIA (Zogu), 1925 ALBANIA • POLAND (Pilsudski), 1926 POLAND • PORTUGAL (Salazar, 1932), 1926 PORTUGAL • LITHUANIA, 1926 LITHUANIA, • YUGOSLAVIA (King Alexander), 1929 Alexander), • RUMANIA (King Carol), 1930 RUMANIA • GERMANY (Hitler), 1933 GERMANY • AUSTRIA(Dolfuss), 1933 AUSTRIA(Dolfuss), • ESTONIA, 1934 ESTONIA, • LATVIA, 1934 LATVIA, • GREECE, 1936 GREECE, • SPAIN (Franco, 1939), 1936 SPAIN Fascism, a definition Fascism, “…a form of revolutionary ultra-nationalism for national rebirth that is based on a primarily vitalist philosophy, is structured on extreme elitism, mass mobilization…, positively values violence as end as well as means and tends to normatize war and/or the military virtues.” (Stanley G. Payne, History of Fascism, 1914-45) • Mussolini promised a utopian society in postwar Italy. Fueled by the Allies’ refusal to grant Italy land at the Paris Peace Talks, Mussolini gained support for his personal army, the Black Shirts. for • Like Hitler later, Mussolini blamed postwar economic decline on the allies and on the ineffectiveness of the parliamentary system. parliamentary • In 1922, the March on Rome defeated King Victor Emmanuel III, and the fascists came to power. fascists • Fascism grew on a the conditions of poverty, social unrest, and wounded national pride from the war. national • It emphasized youth, violence, technology, and war as a form of idealism. idealism. Fascism in Italy Fascism Benito Mussolini (Italian, 18831945) • An admirer of Mussolini was Adolf Hitler. In the 1920s he had been building a paramilitary group of storm troopers and a political party called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or NAZI party). Party • He blamed Germany’s problems on the Weimar parliament, on the terms of Weimar on the Paris Peace Talks, on the German Communist Party, and on Jews. Communist • In the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923 Hitler and his Nazis attempted a coup, but failed. Hitler was arrested and spent time in prison in which he wrote Mein Kampf (1925). Mein • After the economic crisis of 1929, Hitler gained more support from Germans, especially from German workers and conservatives. workers • By 1932, Hitler’s party doubled their representation in parliament and they invited Hitler to become chancellor. invited National Socialism in the Weimar Republic Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) Members of the Beer Hall Putsch, 1923 The Third Reich, 1933-1944 The • In February 1933, the Reichstag Building in Berlin was gutted by fire. Hitler blamed the communists and used the fire as an excuse to implement a state of emergency under Article 48 of the Article Weimar Constitution: suspending civil rights, imposing censorship on the press, and prohibiting meetings of the political opposition. opposition. • At the end of March 1933, the intimidated Reichstag delegates passed the Enabling Act, which suspended the Enabling which Weimar Constitution for 4 years and allowed the Nazi laws to take effect bypassing parliamentary approval. bypassing • Middle-class Germans approved the Enabling Act as a way to promote the Volksgemeinschaft, or “people’s Volksgemeinschaft or community.” community.” The Schutzstaffel (SS) and the Gestapo Schutzstaffel Gestapo • Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the elite Schutzstaffel that Schutzstaffel protected Hitler, and also of the government’s political police system. system. • Hermann Goering was in charge of the Gestapo, the internal security police force, which also professed complete support for and obedience to Nazi ideology. obedience • Joseph Goebbels was the Nazi propagandist, who sold the Nazi anti-Semitic policies to the German public. He also effectively used a form of propaganda known as argumentum ad nauseum argumentum whereby a lie is repeated so often that it becomes so familiar it is finally accepted as the truth. finally Heinrich Himmler Joseph Goebbels Hermann Goering Schutzstaffel (SS) Schutzstaffel (SS) Spanish Civil War Spanish • In 1931 Spanish republicans overthrew the king of Spain in what appeared to be a reversal of the trend throughout the 1920s toward authoritarian politics. reversal • Catholic clergy and large landowners still dominated the Spanish countryside. Catholic • The new republican government failed to implement land reform and failed to get popular support. popular • Wealthy right-wing groups including landowners and clergy we able to organize themselves. themselves. • In 1936 the Popular Front was formed in order to keep the republican government together. government Spanish Civil War Spanish • The right recovered and regrouped under General Francisco Franco who had right-wing support from a number of groups including the fascist Falange Party. the • The conflict between Franco’s forces and the republican government led to the Spanish Civil war (1936-1939). Civil • The war became a rehearsal for WW2 when both Hitler and Mussolini sent in personnel and equipment to support Franco. and • In 1937, Germany used the Basque town of Guernica (in Spain, boarder of France) as a testing ground for new bombs and guns. Innocent Basque civilians were slaughtered. Innocent • The Spanish painter Pablo Picasso memorialized the horror of the event in his painting Guernica. Guernica Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Guernica Guernica Spanish Civil War Spanish • The republic appealed for support but received very little except from the USSR. USSR. • Many civilians from France, Britain and the US joined the republican forces, including George Orwell, Ernest Hemingway, and Orson Wells. Ernest • These fighters claimed that “Spain was the place to stop fascism.” was • Republicans split into Trotskyites (enemy of Stalin), anarchists, communists. communists. • Both sides committed atrocities against civilians. against • Eventually, the Nazi and fascist support for the Falange Party led to their success and the republican government fell in 1939. government • The Franco dictatorship lasted until his death in 1975. his Soviet Russia Soviet • Production in the early 1920s remained at only 13% of pre-war levels. • In the spring of 1921, workers in Petrograd and sailors at a nearby navy base at Kronstadt revolted over short rations and the privileges enjoyed by Bolshevik supervisors. They called for a return to “soviets without communists.” The government had many of the protestors shot. had • In response, Lenin created the NEP, the New Economic Policy which returned some of the Russian economy to the free market, encouraging people to produce and sell goods. produce • Lenin died in 1924, and Joseph Stalin became the party leader. Stalin Joseph Stalin Joseph (1878-1953) Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) Soviet Russia Soviet • In January 1924, Joseph Stalin replaced Lenin as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Russia. Russia. • Lenin’s name was held as sacred after this. after • Stalin was then able to appropriate non-Russian territories into the USSR. USSR. • On his deathbed, Lenin had warned that Stalin would need to be removed from power out of fear of abuses of power. power. • Stalin brought his own people (Georgian) into his government. (Georgian) • By 1929, Stalin was on his way to creating a dictatorship in Russia. creating Soviet Economic Expansion Soviet • While much of the world was suffering the effects of the economic collapse of 1929, the USSR was enjoying a rapid industrial expansion. • In just a few short years the USSR went from a largely agrarian and feudal society to the second largest industrial economy on the planet. economy • In the 1930s, Stalin ended the NEP and created the first of a series of five-year plans at rapid industrial expansion, primarily in coal, iron ore, and steel. steel. Soviet Economic Expansion Soviet • During the 1930s, the Stalin created a huge centralized bureaucracy to manage the rapid industrialization and to promote soviet ideology in the countryside. promote • Most Russians were not communists and knew very little about it. about • Stalin was determined to create a Soviet utopia as a model for communist expansion worldwide. for • Workers were expected to sacrifice themselves for the good of the Soviet state. of • Stalin curtailed what little freedoms workers and peasants had, and they were forced to accept Soviet ideology or face prison or worse. prison • Stalin demanded increased grain production to finance industrialization through increased collectivization of farms. Peasants resisted and Stalin announced the “liquidation of the kulaks” or independent farmers. kulaks” Soviet Purges Soviet • Peasants were then required by Soviet officials to turn in any kulaks in their midst. kulaks • Between 1930 and 1934 grain production declined from 83 to 67 million tons due to the murder of farmers and the inexperience of peasants to work under collectivized conditions. conditions. • Stalin blamed the decrease on the “bourgeois” enemies of communism, and implemented the purges: state violence purges state against citizens who are arrested, imprisoned in labor camps, and executed. (Compare to the French Terror after 1791) and • Thousands disappeared from all levels of Russian society. Thousands • Between 1936 and 1938 Stalin set up a series of “show trials” against Bolshevik leaders accused of conspiracy against the communist government. against • Stalin created a vast network of prison camps called Gulags Gulags across the Russian state, especially in Siberia. across Conclusions Conclusions • The end of WW1 and the Paris Peace Talks, on the one hand, put a stop to the fighting in the trenches, but on the other hand, created the conditions for the rise of radical right-wing politics in the 1920s. the • Both Italian fascism and German National Socialism used the experience of the war in the trenches and, the betrayal by the allied powers after the war, as a means of galvanizing popular support for their violent, racist, and totalitarian governments that will increase their influence and power in the 1920s and 1930s. 1920s • In the US, the end of the war meant prosperity. But the economic recovery that the US promoted in Europe, was dealt a heavy blow by the economic collapse of 1929 which created high unemployment around the world. world. • With the rise of authoritarian governments in the 1930s, largely due to the economic crisis and the increasing animosity towards parliamentary democracy, only Spain seemed a bright spot as the republican government took power in 1931 but finally fell to the Falange Party in 1939. took Terms Terms • The League of Nations The • The New Deal The • Fascism Fascism • Article 48 Article • The Falange Party The • Purges Purges ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course HISTORY 2 taught by Professor Hill during the Spring '10 term at Irvine Valley College.

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