lecture 14 china and japan

lecture 14 china and japan - China and Japan 1900-1945...

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Unformatted text preview: China and Japan 1900-1945 1900-1945 Asia in the 20th Century Asia • During the era of European imperialism in the 19th century Europeans wanted access to Asian products and markets, often intervening in local political affairs or through military conquest. through • Both China and Japan responded differently to the West, incorporating aspects of Western culture and industry while maintaining their own cultural identities. while • Japan adopted imperialist ambitions very similar to those of European states in the early 20th century. They became allies of Germany and Italy during World War II. allies • China went through a series of political upheavals and invasions by Japan. By mid century the influence of Soviet communism had spread to Asia, and China became the first communist state in east Asia in 1949. the Meiji Japan Meiji In 1876 the Meiji set its sights on the Korean peninsula, which one German advisor referred to as, “the dagger pointed at the heart of Japan.” the Fearing an invasion of Korea, the Chinese went to war with Japan between 1894-1895, the Sino1894-1895, Japanese War, in which the Japanese Chinese suffered a humiliating defeat. humiliating Its victory against China increased Meiji power, now without equal in Asia. Sino-Japanese War, 1894-95 Sino-Japanese Russo-Japanese War, 1905 1905 After defeating China, Japan defeated Russia in 1905 showing the world (specifically the West) that it was a major world power. major Russo-Japanese War, 1905 Russo-Japanese Meiji Japan Meiji In 1910 Japan annexed Korea and Taiwan. In The Japanese colonial administration built transportation networks, educational and health institutions, but kept locals from involvement in government. from The Japanese regarded the non-Japanese as racially inferior, in much the same way that many Europeans regarded nonin Europeans. After 1912, when the Meiji Emperor died, Japan underwent a period of liberal democratic reforms based on the British parliamentary system. parliamentary During World War I, Japan sided with the Allied forces and seized Germany’s territories in Asia. seized In the aftermath of the war, however, Japan was not granted any of the spoils and, like Germany and Italy, felt betrayed. any The League of Nations, 1920 The Imperial Japan Imperial • In 1926 Showa (Hirohito) became emperor of Japan and began a period of increased militarization. of • During the 1920s Japan increased its industrial output through heavy machinery and increased population of skilled workers. skilled • During this period the Japanese were required to show loyalty to the emperor and promote nationalist identity. identity. • The economic crisis of 1929 brought this prosperous period to an end as Japan did not have many natural resources required for industrialization such as iron, coal, and oil. such Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931 Japan • A new group of Japanese oligarchs made up of military leaders, businessmen and wealthy farmers did away with the liberal reforms of the post-Meiji period and brought about an era of fascism in Japan. fascism • In 1931, Japanese officers secretly set off explosives aboard a train in Manchuria, China. train • The Japanese claimed that the explosion was targeted against Japanese economic interests and used this as a pretext for invasion. used • The League of Nations condemned the invasion, but the Japanese public was outraged. Japan Invades China Japan • The invasion of Manchuria was the first act of aggression by Japan that will lead to World War II in the Pacific. Japan • The Chinese government initially granted Japan the territory of Manchuria hoping that would satisfy their ambitions to expand. Manchuria • Japan resumed its expansion and by 1937 declared war again on China. China. The Rape of Nanjing, 1937 The • In December 1937, the Japanese army had captured the Chinese capital of Nanjing. captured • For the next 6 weeks hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians, including women and girls, were raped, tortured and brutally killed by Japanese soldiers. brutally • FDR announced an embargo of resources to Japan. But this had little effect on Japanese expansion in the region. Japanese The Rape of Nanjing The Japan During World War II Japan • The Japanese took advantage of the preoccupation with the fighting in Europe to take more territory. territory. • Indochina from the French Indochina • Japan formed an alliance with Hitler and Mussolini to form the Axis powers. the • Japan continued to take territory in Asia and the Pacific encroaching upon US interests in the Philippines and Hawaii. in • The US was a major imperial power in the region and felt threatened by the rapid Japanese expansion. Japanese Imperial Japan at its Height in the 1940s 1940s Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 Pearl •As the Japanese continued As to expand they now confronted the US. confronted • Many Japanese military leaders were reluctant to go to war with the US because of the size and strength of the US Navy. the • The Japanese decided to strike against the US at its naval base in Hawaii where most of the US ships had been anchored. been • The surprise attack brought the US into the war against the Japanese in the Pacific. Pacific. Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 December Internment of Japanese Americans Internment • As a result of the Pearl Harbor attack, war hysteria, and racism, The US government ordered all Japanese and Japanese Americans living on the West Coast to be relocated in detention camps throughout the country. throughout • 62% of the detainees were citizens. Most lost their property. Internment of Japanese Americans Internment Local History: Santa Ana Naval Air Station Local The two hangers are some of the largest unsupported wooden The structures in the world. They were built to house the airships used to patrol the West Coast of the US looking for Japanese submarines and ships. In August 1978, the hangers were designated as a national historical landmark. The hangers were built in 1942, cost of $2.5 million each, are 1,088 feet long, 178 feet high and 297 feet wide. feet The End of the War in the Pacific, 1945 The • By 1944, Japan had conquered much of the South Pacific. much • After the end of fighting in Europe, the British, Americans and Russians quickly mobilized to put an end to Japan’s empire. put • A blockade and bombing campaign slowed Japan down. campaign • However, in order to put a quick end to the fighting, to intimidate the Soviets, and to test their effectiveness, the US dropped two atomic bombs, on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killing over 140,000 Japanese civilians. Japan surrendered on Sept. 2, 1945. surrendered Postwar Japan Postwar • Japan’s imperialist period, which began in the 19th century, was an anomaly in its history, and it had come to end in 1945. come • The US government oversaw much of postwar Japan. much • General Douglas MacArthur wrote the new Japanese constitution (based on the US Constitution) Constitution) • Japan was not allowed to raise an army. an • The US now protected Japan and set up many military bases on the Japanese islands. on • The effects of the atomic weapons were devastating on Japan. were • Many Japanese advocated the abolition of all atomic weapons. all • In the latter 20th century Japan soared economically, especially in the electronics and automobile industries. automobile China China • Following the great upheavals in the 19th century in China, a growing trend of anti-European imperialism swept through China. China. • As a result of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, the Qing government was forced to allow greater European and Japanese access to Chinese markets. access • As the ability of Qing government to maintain its political power waned, a new wave of young Chinese sought republican reforms to replace the Qing Empire. reforms • The new movement adopted Western principles of democracy, nationalism, and socialism, while at the same time rejecting Western imperialism. Western • Sun Yat-sen, who had come from a poor Chinese peasant family, but was educated in the West, became the first leader of the new China. new The End of the Qing Empire The • The Qing Empress Dowager Cixi died in 1908. Cixi • After her death, there were several attempts to reform the Qing government. Qing • But these proved futile as student revolts finally erupted in revolution in 1911. Sun Yat-sen was outside of the country at the time, but he hurried back to take part. part. • The Qing officially ended in 1912 and Sun Yat-sen became the leader of the new provisional government. government. • China was unprepared for modern political structures and a period of instability ensued. period The Guomindang (KMT) The • The first president, Yaun Sh-h’ai, eventually consolidated his power in the hopes of transforming China back into an empire. back • Meanwhile, China was breaking apart into regional military governments headed by warlords. governments • Sun Yat-sen attempted to counter the growing divergence by forming a new national political party, the Guomindang (KMT), intially gaining support in Canton. gaining • During the 1920s the KMT were successful at subduing the warlords and getting the Europeans to give up their claims on Chinese territory -except for Portuguese Macao and British Hong Kong. British Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) Chiang • Sun Yat-sen appointed Chiang KaiSun shek to be the new leader of the KMT. • The new Chinese constitution was based on authoritarian principles but designed to lead to democratic institutions. institutions. • Traditional cultural practices were abolished such as footbinding of young girls--a practice which deformed their feet. feet. The Rise of Chinese Communism The • During Chiang Kai-shek’s rule in the 1920s Westernization increased. 1920s • The warlords returned to power due to Chiang’s inability to unify the country completely, and democratic reforms seemed hopeless. seemed • At the same time a new communist movement was emerging out of the KMT and influenced by the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Revolution • Chiang was anti-communist and he was determined to eradicate the communists from China. from • He cornered the communist Red Army in Jiangxi Province in 1934. The Red Army then retreated into warlord territories. territories. • Chiang thought the warlords and the Red Army would defeat each other. Red The Long March and the Rise of Mao The • The warlords allowed the Red Army to pass through on their way to the northwestern province of Shenshi. Shenshi. • This is the famous Long March: a yearlong trek over very mountainous terrain covering a distance of 6,000 miles. miles. • Of 80,000 Chinese Red Army soldiers who began the march, only 10,000 completed it. 10,000 • The Long March brought Mao Zedong to power for the first time. Zedong • The Long March came to represent the struggle of the Chinese peasant and the embrace of communism against Chinese nationalism and capitalist imperialism. capitalist Japan Invades China Japan • Just as the the march was underway, Japan invaded China. underway, • After initially allowing the Japanese to take Manchuria, the KMT were forced to defend China against the Japanese onslaught. This allowed Mao and the communists to regroup in Yan’an. regroup • The Japanese were successful at subduing the KMT and the urban areas of eastern China. They were unsuccessful in the Chinese countryside. countryside. • The Japanese were brutal against the Chinese and during World War II, the communists and the Guomindang joined forces to drive the Japanese out of China, with the assistance of the Americans and the British. British. Postwar China Postwar • By 1945 the Chinese Communist Party had grown to over one million members; about 100 million Chinese lived in the communist jurisdictions of China. communist • After the Japanese surrender to the Americans in 1945, the civil war between the American-supported KMT and the Soviet-supported Communists resumed, the first “proxy war” of the Cold War era. the • The communists eventually succeeded and drove the KMT out of mainland China. China. • In 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the first communist state in East Asia. Asia. • Chiang Kai-shek established the Republic of China on the island of Taiwan. Taiwan. Conclusions Conclusions • Both Japan and China had complicated histories in the early twentieth century, especially in relation to the West. early • China went through two revolutions, occupation by the Japanese and eventually became communist. Japanese • Japan went through a period of rapid industrialization, a period of imperialist militarism, were the recipients of the first and only uses of atomic weapons in wartime, and evenutally became a economic powerhouse. evenutally • For much of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century, China and Japan had a similar historical development. This will change after World War II as the influence of Europe waned and the superpowers exerted their influence in Asia during the Cold War. during Terms Terms • Rape of Nanjing Rape • Japanese Internment Japanese • Hiroshima Hiroshima • Guomindang (KMT) Guomindang • Footbinding Footbinding • The Long March The ...
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