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Unformatted text preview: Biochemistry BIO6300 Dr. Dmitry Blinder email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org 617 9269167 Lectures + Journal articles discussions. Important: class participation strongly encouraged Three Exams No makeups without doctors notice. Biology Department. Most of the O2 we inhale comes out of our body as... A. CO2 B. CO C. H2O E. O2 D. CH3CH2OH What is living matter? Composed of complex macromolecules. Ability to utilize and transform energy. Defined function for each of organisms components. Ability to sense and respond to external stimulus. Ability to replicate. Ability to evolve. Biochemistry Study of Macromolecules Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA Amino acids: Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Others Dogma of Biology DNA RNA Proteins Macromolecules are constructed from a few simple compounds. Monomeric subunits of Macromolecules Nucleic acids (4+1) Amino acids (20) Sugars (glucose=>glycogen) Molecular logic of life All living organisms build molecules from the same kinds of Monomeric subunits. The structure of the macromolecule determines its specific biological function. Each genus and species is defined by its distinctive set of macromolecules. Energy Production and Consumption in Metabolism Organisms are never at equilibrium with their surroundings. Precursors=>Hemoglobin=>Breakdown Metabolism= Catabolism+Anabolism Organisms transform energy and matter from their surroundings. Living organisms create and maintain their complex, orderly structures using the energy extracted from fuels or sunlight. Energy is derived from flow of electrons. Oxidationreduction reactions. Energy need for virtually every organism is provided, directly or indirectly by solar energy. The flow of electrons in oxidationreduction reactions is energy transduction in living cells. Living organisms are interdependent, exchanging energy and matter via environment. Energy coupling links reactions in biology. Amount of energy available to do work is free energy, G. Chemical reactions are coupled, so that energy releasing reactions drive energy requiring reactions until equilibrium is reached. System is at equilibrium when the rate of product formation is equal to the rate at which the product is converted to a reactant (or is removed from the system). Glucose + P=>Glucose6 phosphate Unfavorable endergonic requires energy. ATP=>ADP + P Favorableexergonic produces energy Glucose + ATP=> Glucose 6phosphate + ADP Favorable Reaction coupling through shared intermediates. Endergonic and exergonic reactions. Enzymes as catalysts. Enzymes lower the activation energy of the reaction. Most enzymes are unchanged in the process. Enzymes form pathways. Metabolism= =Catabolism(exergonic) +Anabolism(endergonic). Metabolism is regulated. Threonine>A>B>C>D>E>Isoleucine Overabundance of Isoleucine causes the inhibition of the first step in biosynthesis. Feedback inhibition. Living cells are selfregulating chemical engines, continually adjusting for maximum economy. Information transfer. DNA as a carrier of genetic information. RNA as a carrier of genetic information. Proteins (prions). Cells Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Presence of organelles Nucleus Chromosomes ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course BIOT 6300 taught by Professor Blinder during the Spring '11 term at Northeastern.
- Spring '11