Physics - Physics for Gam s e IMGD 4000 Topics I...

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Physics for Games IMGD 4000
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Topics Introduction Point Masses Projectile motion Collision response Rigid-Bodies Numerical simulation Controlling truncation error Generalized translation motion Soft Body Dynamic System Collision Detection
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Introduction (1 of 2) Physics deals with motions of objects in virtual scene And object interactions during collisions Physics increasingly (but only recently, last 3 years?) important for games Similar to advanced AI, advanced graphics Enabled by more processing Used to need it all for more core Gameplay (graphics, I/O, AI) Now have additional processing for more Duo-core processors Physics hardware (Ageia’s Physx) and general GPU (instead of graphics) Physics libraries (Havok FX) that are optimized
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Introduction (2 of 2) Potential New gameplay elements Realism (ie- gravity, water resistance, etc.) Particle effects Improved collision detection Rag doll physics Realistic motion
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Physics Engine – Build or Buy? Physics engine can be part of a game engine License middleware physics engine Complete solution from day 1 Proven, robust code base (in theory) Features are always a tradeoff Build physics engine in-house Choose only the features you need Opportunity for more game-specific optimizations Greater opportunity to innovate Cost can be easily be much greater
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Newtonian Physics (1 of 3) Sir Isaac Newton (around 1700) described three laws, as basis for classical mechanics: 1. A body will remain at rest or continue to move in a straight line at a constant velocity unless acted upon by another force (So, Atari Breakout had realistic physics! ) 2. The acceleration of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction as the resultant force. 3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction More recent physics show laws break down when trying to describe universe (Einstein), but good for computer games
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Newtonian Physics (2 of 3) Generally, object does not come to a stop naturally, but forces must bring it to stop Force can be friction (ie- ground) Force can be drag (ie- air or fluid) Forces: gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear But gravitational most common in games (and most well-known) From dynamics: Force = mass x acceleration ( F=ma ) In games, forces often known, so need to calculate acceleration a = F/m Acceleration used to update velocity and velocity used to update objects position: x = x + (v + a * t) * t ( t is the delta time) Can do for ( x, y, z ) positions (speed is just magnitude, or size, of velocity vector) So, if add up all forces on object and divide by mass to get acceleration
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Newtonian Physics (3 of 3) Kinematics is study of motion of bodies and forces acting upon bodies Three bodies: Point masses – no angles, so only linear motion (considered infinitely small) Particle effects
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Physics - Physics for Gam s e IMGD 4000 Topics I...

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