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1. A proficient engineer can easily design skeletal structures that are more functional than those currently
found in the forelimbs of such diverse mammals as horses, whales, and bats. The actual forelimbs of these
mammals do not seem to be optimally arranged because
1) natural selection is generally limited to modifying structures that were present in previous generations and in
2) in many cases, phenotype is not merely determined by genotype, but by the environment as well.
3) though we may not consider the fit between the current skeletal arrangements and their functions excellent, we
should not doubt that natural selection ultimately produces the best design. 4)
natural selection has not had sufficient
time to create the optimal design in each case, but will do so given enough time.
2. The tissue lining the inside of the lungs must have a large surface area relative to volume for efficient
exchange of gases. Additionally, the gases must be exchanged to and from the lung cells into the capillaries
quickly without going through multiple cell layers. What type of tissue is this most likely to be based on this
1) stratified squamous epithelium
2) loose connective tissue
3) simple squamous epithelium
4) smooth muscle
5) fibrous connective tissue
3. Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events,
under the influence of natural selection?
1. Well adapted individuals leave more offspring than do poorly adapted individuals.
2. A change occurs in the environment.
3. Genetic frequencies within the population change.
4. Poorly adapted individuals have decreased survivorship.
4. In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles,
, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of allele
is 0.2. What is the percentage of the population that is heterozygous for this allele?
(no calculators allowed on
According to the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, the frequencies of alleles in a population will remain constant if
_____ is the only process that affects the gene pool.
2) genetic drift
3) sexual reproduction
5) differential reproductive success
6. Most Swiss starlings produce four to five eggs in each clutch. Starlings producing fewer, or more, than this
have reduced fitness. Which of the following terms best describes this situation?
1) artificial selection