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Unformatted text preview: General Psychology: Professor Leyton Fall 2011 Psychoanalysis: 1. Freudian Theory 2. Object-Relations Theory Sigmund Freud (1856-1936) – Freudian Theory - Developed Psychoanalysis – Observed adults Object-Relations Theory – Improved Psychoanalysis – Observed children Object-Relations Theory =Modern Psychoanalysis Major Psychological illness of 19 th century: Women suffering from hysteria Why? WOMEN HAD NO RIGHTS 1. Not allowed to receive education 2. Husband had all the $$$ 3. Wife beating = honorable 4. Entire legal system favored men 5. Girl raised as slave 6. Passed on as slave when married 7. No escape 8. Complete powerlessness – birth to death Hysteria Symptoms 1. Heightened excitability (anxiety attacks) 2. Violent Mood Swings 3. Depression 4. Phobias 5. Severe Physical Problems – paralysis of arms, hands, jaw 6. Blindness Modern Time Hysteria =POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER · Long Severe stress after trauma · Symptoms same as soldiers No one in 19t century knew trauma = issue Charcot (French Neurologist @ Large Hospital/Asylum in Paris) · Gave world famous lectures on effect of hypnotism on hysteria · Used hypnotic suggestions to remove symptoms · Freud saw Charcot and was impressed · Charcot not interested in cause, only game Freud & Janet Theory of Cause of Hysteria · Patients have traumatic experience · These experiences leave memories too emotional to face · Memories split from rest of mind – hidden · Memories so intense, they control people’s lives Freud said Purpose of Hypnotism: Discover the memories and bring them to unconsciousness to be faced & UNITED with rest of consciousness · UNIFICATION of consciousness with buried memories brings relief and happiness · Freud’s discovery = fundamental anyone has made of mind Freud’s discovery: 7 Basic Ideas 1. Memories are the problem · Psychological difficulties develop because they suffer from memories 2. Too Muchness · Memories are too emotionally charged to face 3. Defenses · To Muchness must be defended against, many techniques to defend against (repression) 4. Splitting · Behind all defenses = splitting of mind. Defense is barrier, barrier creates splitting (Repression) split- ting (Multiple Personality Disorder) 5. Illness is splitting · Psychological illness is therefore splitting/fragmentation of mind. Makes person unable to function properly in life 6. Health is absence of splitting · Psychologically healthy person (functions well) · Person who’s mind is unified, whole, not split 7. Psychology is integration · Purpose of Psychotherapy – to make a person whole through splitting · Integration Freud and Subsequent Psychoanalysis Problem · Develop techniques to make a person whole Freud discovered – Hypnosis was not successful · Why? Not Permanent · Hypnotism can bring memories up but not overcome defenses · Defenses = “strategy for living” · Harder to deal with defenses than memories History of Psychoanalysis · Changed from directed towards memories to defenses...
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- Fall '11
- Classical Conditioning, person, depressive position, bad objects