AnthropologyLectureOutline-1

AnthropologyLectureOutline-1 - 1Introduction to...

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1 Introduction to Anthropology The unexamined life is not worth living. Socrates Know then thyself, presume not God to scan; the proper study of Mankind is Man . Alexander Pope I. The Scope of Anthropology A. The Sacred Cross of Anthropology (through time (diachronic) and across space (synchronic)) 1. Characteristics of culture a. Shared b. Learned c. Based on symbols d. Integrated e. Dynamic 2. Cultural systems a. Superstructure (world view and ideology) b. Social structure (social organization) c. Infrastructure (subsistence and technology) 3. Inseparability of culture and biology 4. Anthropology as a science (inductive and deductive science) 5. Anthropology as a humanity B. Physical Anthropology 1. Human paleontology 2. Human variation 3. Primatology C. Cultural Anthropology 1. Ethnography 2. Ethnology 3. Linguistics 1
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D. Archaeology 1. Past-tense of cultural and physical anthropology 2. Material culture 3. Archaeological culture E. Applied Anthropology II. History of Evolutionary Thought Ontology: Who are we? Where did we come from? Why are we here? A. Greek Thought 1. Plato – Sought a materialist explanation of creation Nature is physical matter moving in accordance to natural law God is a remote creator of primordial matter and the laws of motion by which it operates 2. Aristotle – developed methods for the study of nature, ethics, and politics Taxonomy of Nature : plants, animals, invertebrates, mammals, humans Fixity of Species- species cannot change, are perfect in creation B. Medieval Paradigm Scholars tried to reconcile Aristotle and Genesis Life created by God Life is fixed and unchanging 1. Earth is of recent origin- supernatural origin, created in 4004 BC (Archbishop James Ussher from Anglican church) 2. World in state of advanced degeneration 3. Decline of feudalism- Feudalism gave way to trade and commerce 4. Islamic universities and the spread of literacy- Arabic science 5. Discovery of the Americas 6. Discovery of prehistoric stone tools 2
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C. The Enlightenment and Empirical Science Tenets of the Enlightenment: Progress, Rational thought Empiricalism- explain nature with Natural Law, not with Holy Scripture 1. Carolus Linnaeus - Swedish naturalist (1707-1778) The System of Nature (10 th edition 1758) on taxonomy - a classification system of all living things Presenting Linnaeus’s Genus Homo Definition of species-A group of a population that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Latinized name and came up with taxonomy system 2. George L. Leclerc Buffon (1707-1788) Natural History (1749) on influence of the environment a) species would change as a result of adaptation to a new environment b) Experimented with minerals- earth is at least 75,000 years old “humankind are in fact decadent apes” 3. Baron George Leopold Cuvier (1769-1832) on law of correlation and catastrophism Chief of French Museum of Natural History- world-wide reputation Overseer of laboratory full of fossils and biological specimens brought back by Napolean
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AnthropologyLectureOutline-1 - 1Introduction to...

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