Lecture 4-1 Dimensions of Poverty and Inequality

Lecture 4-1 Dimensions of Poverty and Inequality - Lecture...

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Lecture 4-1 a) Gender, Poverty and Inequality Instructor: Dr. Jin WANG Feb 25 th , 2011
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Missing woman Amartya Sen (1986) “there are 100 million missing woman.” What is a missing woman? A woman that should be alive but not, due to poverty in the sense that their potential existence had been eliminated through ……………
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Missing Woman
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Missing Woman Number of missing woman = Current male population * {Female/male ratio in Sub-Saharan Africa} Current number of women Why using Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a benchmark? Since males and females are NOT culturally assessed to have disparate values in Africa, African countries, despite their poverty, display sex ratios that are remarkably free of the bias.
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Source : Filmer, Deon, Jed Friedman and Norbert Schady. 2008. Development, Modernization, and Son Preference in Fertility Decisions .” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4716
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Number of females/Number of males in 1986
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An Exercise: calculating missing woman In 1986, given Female/male ratio in China is 0.941, male population 543.21 million, female population 511.16 million, What is the number of missing women in China?
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Missing Woman & Biased Gender Ratio The proximate cause of this biased sex ratio at birth is sex-selective abortion female fetuses detected by amniocentesis and ultrasound techniques are often aborted or, in some countries, female infanticide.
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Missing Woman & Biased Gender Ratio Sometimes, Child (girl) mortality does not come out of actual desire of the parent to suppress the girl, but the consequence of neglect. Girls often do not receive the same medical attention to alleviate illnesses as boys do. In India, for example, in the event of an illness boys are, on average, twice as likely to be taken to a doctor than are girls. This “benign neglect” results in a biased sex ratio not just at birth but also for the population at large.
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Missing woman: Strong Son Preference, why? South and East Asia shows a significant pattern in the desired sex composition of children: there is a strong preference for male children. Why? Economically and culturally, males are deemed to be of greater value than females. In South Asia, old-age security is expected only from male children. Female children, in contrast, are often seen as economic burdens because they have to be married off with dowries that are worth several years' incomes of their parents. In East Asia, old-age security may not be the overriding reason for the biased sex ratio at birth. Nevertheless, sons are much more valued because, culturally, sons apparently enhance the emotional and spiritual goals of their parents, and they also perpetuate the family name.
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Missing woman and strong son preference: India as an Example Major Inheritance law in India - Hindu Succession Act (HSA) 1956 Applies to Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains. Does not apply to Muslims, Christians, Parsis and Jews
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course ISOM isom111111 taught by Professor Hong during the Spring '11 term at HKUST.

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Lecture 4-1 Dimensions of Poverty and Inequality - Lecture...

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