11.
A loop in an electrical circuit
is
a closed
path
starting
at
a
node
and
proceeding through cir
cuit elements eventually returning
to
the
starting
point.
12.
Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) states
that
the
algebraic sum
of
the voltages in a
loop
must
equal
zero.
If
th
e
po
sitive polarity
of
a voltage
is
encountered
first in going
around
the
loop
,
the
voltage carries a plus sign in the sum.
On
the
other
hand
, if the negative polarity is encoun
tered
first, the voltage carries a minus sign.
13.
Two elements
are
in parallel if
both
ends
of
one
element
are
directly
conn
ected
to
corres
pond
ing ends
of
th
e other element. The voltages
of
parallel elements
are
identical.
14.
The
voltage
between
the ends
of
an
ideal con
ductor
is zero regardless
of
the
current
flowing
through the conductor.
All
point
s in a circuit
that
are
connected
by ideal
conductor
s can
be
cons
ider
ed as a single point.
15.
An
ideal indepe
ndent
voltage source maintains
a specified voltage across its terminals indepen
dent
of
other
elements
that
are
connected
to
it
and
of
the
current
flowing
through
it.
16.
For
a controlled voltage source, the voltage
across the source terminals
depend
s
on
other
Problems
Section 1.1: Overview
of
Electrical Engineering
P1.1.
What
are
four reasons
that
other
engineering
student
s
need
to
learn
the fundamentals
of
electrical engineering?
P1.2.
Broadly
speaking,
what
are
the
two
objectives
of
electrical systems?
•
mmn
P1.3.
Name
eight subdivisions
of
electrical engi
•
neenng.
P1.4.
Write
a few paragraphs describing an inter
esting application
of
electrical engineering in
your
field. Consult engineering journals
and
trade
magazines such as
the
IEEE
Spectrum
,
Automotive
Engineering, Che
mi
c
al
Enginee
r
ing,
or
Civil Engineering
for ideas.
Problems
35
voltages
or
currents in the circuit. A voltage
controlled voltage source is a voltage source
having a voltage
equal
to
a
constant
times
the
voltage across a pair
of
terminals elsewhere in
the network. A currentcontrolled voltage source
is a voltage source having a voltage equal to a
constant times
the
current
through some
oth
er
element
in
the
circuit.
17.
An
ideal
indep
e
ndent
current
source forces a
specified
curr
e
nt
to flow
through
itse
lf,
indep
en
dent
of
other
elements
that
are
connected
to
it
and
of
the
voltage across it.
18.
For
a controlled
current
source,
the
current
depends
on
other
voltages
or
currents in
the
circuit. A voltagecontrolled
current
source pro
duces a
current
equal
to
a constant times the
voltage across a pair
of
terminals e
ls
e
wh
e
re
in
the network. A currentcontrolled
current
source
produces a
current
equal
to
a cons
tant
times
the
current
through
s
ome
other
element
in
the
circuit.
19.
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 Spring '09
 Mechatronics, Automotive Engineering, The Circuit, Thévenin's theorem, Voltage source, Norton's theorem, hat

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