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Unformatted text preview: 3. Nonlinear circuits, such as those containing a diode, can be analyzed by using the load-line technique. 4. Zener diodes are intended to be operated in the reverse-breakdown region as constant-voltage references. 5. Voltage regulators are circuits that produce a nearly constant output voltage while operating from a variable source. 6. The ideal-diode model is a short circuit (on) if current flows in the forward direction and an open circuit (off) if voltage is applied in the reverse direction. 7. In the method of assumed states, we assume a state for each diode (on or off), analyze the cir- cuit, and check to see if the assumed states are consistent with the current directions and voltage polarities. This process is repeated until a valid set of states is found. 8. In a piecewise-linear model for a nonlin- ear device, the volt-ampere characteristic is approximated by straight-line segments. On each Problems Section 10.1: Basic Diode Concepts P10.1. Draw the circuit symbol for a diode, labeling the anode and cathode. P10.2. Draw the volt-ampere characteristic of a typical diode and label th e various regions. P10.3. Describe a fluid-flow analogy for a diode. P10.4. Write the Shockley equation and define all of the term s. P10.5. Compute the values of Vr for temperatures of 20 C and 150C. *P10.6. Sketch i versus v to scale for the circuits shown in Figure P10.6. The reverse- breakdown voltages of the Zener diodes are shown. As sume voltages of 0.6 V for Problems 507 segment, the device is modeled as a voltage source in series with a resistance. 9. Rectifier circuits can be used to charge batter- ies and to convert ac voltages into constant de voltages. Half-wave rectifiers conduct current only for one polarity of the ac input, whereas full-wave circuits conduct for both polarities. 10. Wave-shaping circuits change the waveform of an input signal and deliver the modified wave- form to the output terminals. Clipper circuits remove that portion of the input waveform above (or below) a given level. Clamp circuits add or subtract a de voltage, so that the po sitive (or negative) peaks have a specified voltage. 11. The small-signal (incremental) equivalent circuit of a diode consists of a resistance. The value of the resistance depends on the operating point (Q point). 12. De sources and coupling capacitors are replaced by s hort circuits in small-signal ac equivalent cir- cuit s. Diodes are replaced with their dynamic resistances. + v 0 l > (a) all diodes including the Zener diodes when current flows in the forward direction. 0 l > 0 l > + + v v (b) (c) Figure Pl 0.6 P10.7. Repeat Problem P10.6 for the circuits shown in Figure Pl0.7. * Denotes that answers are contained in the Stude nt Solutions fi les. S ee Appendix F for more information about accessing the Student Solutions. 508 Chapter 1 0 Diodes ....
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- Spring '09