Ch16_Summary - CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 16 What Is...

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CHAPTER SUMMARY – CHAPTER 16 What Is Motivation? Define motivation. Explain the energy, direction, and persistence aspects of motivation. Motivation is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal. The energy element is a measure of intensity or drive. The effort needs to be channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. Finally, motivation includes a persistence dimension in that employees need to persist in putting forth effort to achieve goals. Early Theories of Motivation Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and how it can be used to motivate. Discuss how Theory X and Theory Y managers approach motivation. Describe Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. Explain Herzberg’s views of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs proposes that there are five need levels (physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization) arranged in a hierarchy. Once a need level has been generally satisfied, it no longer serves to motivate behavior. (See Exhibit 16-1.) According to McGregor, a Theory X manager assumes that people don’t like to work and must be threatened, forced, and directed to work. A Theory Y manager assumes that people like to work and exercise self-direction. Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene (two-factor) theory proposes that the hygiene factors (those
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Ch16_Summary - CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 16 What Is...

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