Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide

Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide - Psychology Exam 1 Study...

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Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 1. Define what psychology is, and indicate what kinds of behaviors is incorporates. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Goals are to describe, predict, and explain everything we do that can be directly observed. 2. What types of questions are involved in critical thinking? Psychologists rely on critical thinking, or the process of thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence. Psychology is about thinking deeply, reflectively. Questions involved are to analyze, infer, connect, synthesize, criticize, create, evaluate, think and rethink. 3. How do the goals of basic and applied research differ? 4. Describe how the nature-nurture question relates to the development of psychology. The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual’s innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. 5. Contrast the positions of dualism and monism as they apply to the “mind-body” problem. Dualism- mind is separate from and in control of the body Monism- mind and body are one; mind is what the body does The mind impacts the body by mental commitment, goal setting, and self-discipline will be the kind of mental processes necessary to transform your body. The body impacts the mind because physical states such as illness and health influence the way we think. 6. Compare the goals and methods of structuralism and functionalism. Structuralism is William Wundt’s approach that focuses on identifying the structures of the human mind. The method used in the study of mental structures was introspection, or looking inside. Used systematic, detailed self-reports required of the person in the controlled laboratory setting. William James believed in functionalism, which was concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in individual’s adaptation to the environment. More focused on what was going on with human interaction with outside world. 7. What causal factors are the foci of the psychodynamic perspective? Emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological instincts and society’s demands, and early family experiences. This approach argues that unlearned biological instincts, especially sexual and aggressive impulses, influence the way people think, feel and behave. 8. What observations convinced Freud of the importance of unconscious and childhood determinants on adult behaviors? Saw much of psychological development as instinctual; he theorized that early relationships with parents are the chief forces that shape an individual’s personality. 9. What are the important causal factors of behavior within the behavioral perspective?
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Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide - Psychology Exam 1 Study...

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