Taber handout - Embryonic Development Mechanics of...

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Mechanics of Morphogenesis Larry A. Taber Dept of Biomedical Engineering Washington University St. Louis, MO Embryonic Development Morphogenesis – change in form (shape) Building an Embryo Genes (materials & instructions) Cells and proteins (mechanics) Cellular Morphogenetic Processes { Cell migration { Differential adhesion { Cell intercalation { Differential/anisotropic growth { Programmed cell death (apoptosis) { Active cell shape change { Cytoskeletal contraction Genetic Regulation Heart Development Looping Septation
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Congenital Heart Disease { Congenital heart defects are the #1 birth defect. { 25,000 babies per year are born with CHD in the US. { Many congenital heart defects are rooted in early development. Heart Tube Formation Chick Embryo: Heart Formation (Moreno-Rodriguez et al., 2006) Heart Tube Myocardium Cardiac Jelly Endocardium Lumen (Courtesy D. Sedmera) First Step: Formation of Head Fold 24 hr Optical Coherence Tomography OCT images: + 3 hr
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Relative Motion of Germ Layers Red = ecto Blue = endo Stage 5+ 6+ Head Fold Model Driving Forces { Convergent-extension in neural plate { Active cell shape change in head fold Colas & Schoenwolf (2001) g λ 1 g λ 1 λ g < 1 λ g > Head Fold Model Model Results Model Results
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Strain Distributions Stress Distributions Stage 5 6 Release of Lateral Tension Stage 6+ Removal of Vitelline Membrane Cardiac Looping Looping Phases From Manner (2000) Stage 10 (1.5 d) Stage 12 (2 d) Stage 15 (2.2 d) Stage 18 (3 d) C-looping S-looping
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Taber handout - Embryonic Development Mechanics of...

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