Sakiyama Lecture - Biomaterials for Drug Delivery and...

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1 Biomaterials for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering Shelly Sakiyama Ͳ Elbert, Ph.D. Washington University Biomedical Engineering and Surgery Tissue Engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and the life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function Langer and Vacanti. Science 260, 920 (1993) Tissue Engineering Constructs What is normal tissue? ± Multi Ͳ cellular ± Three Ͳ dimensional structure ± Extracellular Matrix ± Multi Ͳ functional ± Takes cues from the environment ± Interfaces with surroundings Tissue Engineering ± Tissue engineers design replacement tissue that can be grown either inside or outside of the patient’s body to replace defective or injured tissues.
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2 Implantation of devices that induce the regeneration of functional human tissues Vascularization of Engineered Tissues Copyright 1999 Scientific American, Inc. Design and grow human tissues outside the body for later implantation to repair or replace diseased tissues ± The most common example of this form of therapy is the skin graft, which is used for treatment of burns. Skin graft replacements have been grown and used clinically for more than 10 years. Tissue Engineered Skin Ͳ Apligraf Organogenesis http://www.organogenesis.com/ Production of Apligraf Spinal Cord Injury ± 250,000 Americans with spinal cord injuries ± Approximately 11,000 new injuries occur each year in US.
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3 . Schmidt and Leach, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 2003 Effects growth factors on neurite outgrowth Neurons communicate via synapses Nerve Structure A nerve cell, with its associated Schwann cells, contacting a muscle cell at a neuromuscular junction. Regeneration experiments indicating the special character of the junctional basal lamina at a neuromuscular junction Comparison of normal and damaged spinal cords ± Cross Ͳ sections of normal (top) and damaged (bottom) spinal cords. The severe damage to the spinal cord at bottom is visible as a large cavity (clear area) in the center that also contains some light Ͳ colored scar tissue. Many cells have died in the central area, but a ring of surviving spinal cord fibers surrounds the cavity. The dark blue color shows that many of the surviving nerve fibers are still insulated by myelin sheaths. ± Graphic generated by Richard P. Bunge of the Miami
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4 Protecting regrowing nerve cells with ensheathing cells. ± The use of ensheathing cells to guide nerve growth through a break in the spinal cord. This work was conducted by Mary Bartlett Bunge at the University of Miami. ± The image is reprinted with permission of The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis; (c) University of Miami. Response to Injury in the Central Nervous System Schmidt and Leach, Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 2003 Biomaterial Characteristics Biomaterial Matrix matrix degradation growth factor Cell cell adhesion migration Drug Delivery from Biomaterials ± Physical entrapment ± diffusion controlled ± Covalent immobilization ± no release release controlled
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Sakiyama Lecture - Biomaterials for Drug Delivery and...

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