Chapter 1 Notes

Chapter 1 Notes - Study 1, 3, & 4 Introduction to...

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Introduction to anatomy and physiology: We are studying the structures… www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-15385648 Classification of living things: Humans and many other animals are vertebrates Characterized by a segmented vertebral column Common characteristics suggest the same path in evolution Levels of organization, anatomical structures, physiological process Homeostasis The goal of physiological regulation and the key to survival in a changing environment. Tuesday, January 17, 2012 Anatomy – cutting open (study of the internal and external structure of the body and physical relationships among body parts) Describes the structures of the body What they are made of? Tissues, bones… Where they are located? Anterior, superficial Associated structures? Muscles, etc. . Study how muscles attach to bone… Physiology The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions Functions of anatomical structures Individual and cooperative functions Study how muscle contracts or what forces a muscle exerts. Anatomists Communication among other anatomists Maps of the body Prominent anatomical structures serve landmarks Directional terms Medical terminology (roots, prefixes, suffixes, etc, to construct words) Most anatomy and physiology terms are derived from Greek or Latin Root with prefixes and suffixes Terms Commemorative names Eponyms Important for scientists in the world to use the same name for each body structure In 1998 the international association of Anatomists published a book for terminology International Anatomical Terminology (worldwide standard of anatomical vocabulary) Anatomy and Physiology are closely related Anatomical information provides information about functions Physiological mechanisms can be explained only in terms of anatomy
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ALL SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS ARE PREFORMED BY SPECIFIC STRUCTURES…. Link is present but not always understood o Example anatomy of the heart and kidney o Analogy --- Pickup truck, bicycle… Anatomy Anatomy is divided into two major groups Gross anatomy (macroscopic) Microscopic anatomy Other anatomical specialties focus on specific process (surgical anatomy) 1-4 Relationships between Anatomy and Physiology Gross anatomy , or macroscopic anatomy, examines large, visible structures. . Surface anatomy : exterior features and superficial markings (fingers, legs) Regional anatomy: specific body areas (head, neck) Systemic anatomy: Organ systems (skeletal systems) Developmental anatomy: Changes in form that occur from conception to death (embryology) early stages Clinical anatomy: medical specialties (pathological) Microscopic Anatomy Structures that cannot be seen without magnification Examines tissues, cells and molecules. Two major subdivisions
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Chapter 1 Notes - Study 1, 3, & 4 Introduction to...

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