Pharmacology Exam 2 Study

Pharmacology Exam 2 Study - Pharmacology Exam #2 Study...

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Pharmacology Exam #2 Study Guide Contraception 1. Mechanism of contraception: Prevent sperm from entering the vagina/cervix. Immobilization or inactivation of sperm. Fertility awareness. Prevention of ovulation/implantation. Sterilization 2. The contraceptive effects of progestin and estrogen: Estrogen contraceptive effects: o Inhibition of ovulation (effect on hypothalamus) o Inhibit implantation (alter uterine secretions) o Accelerate ovum transport o Luteolysis (degeneration of corpus luteum) Progestin contraceptive effects: o Increase cervical mucus viscosity o Capacitation inhibited (capacitation: sperm is prepped after ejaculation, inside female, to fuse with membrane of ovum) o Slow ovum transport o Inhibit implantation o Inhibit ovulation Dose dependent (at really high doses) 3. Differences between monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic birth control pills: Monophasic Monophasic oral contraceptives come in four-week birth control packs. They are known as monophasic because the same amount of progestin and estrogen for the entire three-week active pill cycle . Monophasic pills are further classified by their estrogen level. Low dose monophasic pills have the least amount of estrogen (20 mcg). Regular dose monophasic pills have a moderate amount of estrogen (30-35 mcg). High dose monophasic pills have about 50 mcg of estrogen. Also noteworthy is that monophasic pills have considerably MORE side effects when compared to biphasic and triphasic pills. Biphasic Biphasic oral contraceptives come in four-week birth control packs. They are known as biphasic because the level of hormones changes once
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during the three-week active pill cycle (two different hormone levels). Biphasic pills deliver the same amount of estrogen per day, but the amount of progestin increases about halfway through the active pill cycle. The estrogen/progestin ratio is lower during the first half of the cycle to allow the endometrium to thicken up like it normally does. During the second half of the cycle, the estrogen/progestin ratio is higher to allow for the normal shedding of the lining of the uterus. Triphasic Triphasic oral contraceptives come in four-week birth control packs. They are known as t triphasic because the level of hormones changes twice during the three-week active pill cycle (three different hormone levels, one for each week). Depending on the brand of triphasic pills, the progestin/estrogen levels might change each week. However, typically the level of estogen remains the same, while the level of progestin generally increases. Typically, Triphasic is the best tolerated by most women. 4. Dose of ethinyl estradiol that constitutes a low-dose oral contraceptive: A low dose is 30-35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. 5. The four pharmacologic categories of progestin in combination oral
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course PHR 338 taught by Professor Karboski during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas.

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Pharmacology Exam 2 Study - Pharmacology Exam #2 Study...

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