Sociology Exam 2 - Sociology Exam 2: Stratification Goes...

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Unformatted text preview: Sociology Exam 2: Stratification Goes into the idea of these taken for granted notions of society Stratathink of archaeologythings on top of each other Where does stratification come from? o Hunter-gatherersvery little stratification; there is wealth but very little wealth: find a banana, then you eat it In stratificationfarms grow bananas, sell them, not everyone has equal access to bananas o Structured inequalities within society o Three characteristics of socially stratified societies Rankings according to social categories Life chances heavily determined by social category Life chances: refers to the persons opportunity for achieving economic prosperity, being able to go from one income bracket to the next Ranks of different social categories change over time Mobility of women in the work forceuse to just be household, secretary; now they have more roles in the work force Forms of stratification o Slavery Romans/Greeks had slavesthose had different occupational status than slavery in early America o Caste System Based on birth; can never leave your caste, marry in caste regulated by custom/law ApartheidSouth Africa o Class More fluid, meritorious, linked to SES (socioeconomic status), and impersonal Move up in the world based on merit, efforts, achievement; not based on what you were born into Sociological Explanation of Stratification o Functionalism: Davis and Moore (1945) How does inequality work to improve overall society? It encourages people to work harder to excel and move up People develop a higher skill set for different forms of difficult occupations o Marxism relationship of exploitationbased on connection to economy; determined by economic relations bourgeoisie/capitalists proletariat/labor force o Weber Agrees with Marx, but thinks thats Class and status Status: prestige that society gives to a certain social group (celebrities, sports stars); also within the political systemsome politicians have more status based on connections. Another form is based on professionalism: lawyers/doctors have more status. Status: Who is cool in society? Middle Class o The United States understands itself as a middle-class society o This fits strongly held ideologies, including classlessness, meritocracy, and the work ethic o Middle class ideologies tend to promote the reproduction of inequality Poverty in the US o Absolute poverty and relative poverty o Official poverty line is based on an income three times the cost of monthly groceries o Explanations of poverty: Blaming the victim Blaming the system Politics, States, and Nations: Review: o Stratification: Existence of structured inequalities in societies. Based on rankings, social categories. There are different ways of understanding this o Social Inequality: Functionalist (functions for the overall society), Marxian (this is a result of class warfare, we are all inherently equal, but those who have access...
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Sociology Exam 2 - Sociology Exam 2: Stratification Goes...

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