renal phys - Renal Physiology Workbook Questions: 1) What...

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Renal Physiology Workbook Questions: 1) What is a nephron? Trace a drop of fluid from afferent arteriole through the tubule of the nephron ending the renal pelvis, naming all structures it passes: Nephron: The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. That means that it is the smallest structure that can perform all the functions of the kidney. A drop of fluid passes from the afferent arteriole, to the glomerulus, to the efferent arteriole, then to the peritubular capillaries, and finally into the vasa recta. These renal capillaries join to form venules and small veins conducting blood out of the kidney through the renal vein. The fluid that passes through the glomerular capillary into Bowman’s capsule travels from the proximal tubule, to the loop of henle, then to the distal tubule, the collecting duct, and finally the renal pelvis. After the renal pelvis, the fluid is now referred to as urine which flows into the ureter on its way to excretion. 2) Describe the portal system of the kidney: The portal system of the kidneys is a specialized region of the circulation consisting of two capillary beds directly connected by a set of blood vessels. [2 cap beds are: glomerular capp & peritubular cap, connected by afferent arteriole & efferent arterioles] The function of the renal portsl system is first to filter fluid out of the blood and into the lumen of the nephron at the glomerular capillaries, then to reabsorb fluid from the tubule back into the blood at the peritubular capillaries. The forces behind fluid movement in the renal portal system are similar to those that govern filtration of water and molecules out of systemic capillaries at other tissues. 3) The renal corpuscle is the combination of the glomerulus and the Bowman’s capsule. The movement of fluid from the blood into the lumen of the nephron takes place at the Renal Corpuscle. At the renal corpuscle, the walls of the glomerular capp and bowman’s capsule are modified to allow for the bulk flow of fluid. Filtration takes place in the renal corpuscle, which consists of the glomerular cap surrounded by Bowman’s capsule. 4) Describe the juxtaglomerular apparatus: The region where the nephron twists and folds back on itself so that the final part of the ascending limb of the loop of henle passes between the afferent and efferent arterioles. The proximity of the ascending limb and the arterioles allows paracrine communication between the two structures. 5) How much plasma on average enters the nephrons per day? 180 L of fluid 6) How much urine on average leaves the body per day as urine? What happens to the fluid that doesn’t leave in the urine? The average volume of urine leaving the kidneys is only 1.5 L a day, more than 99% of
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course BIO 89515 taught by Professor Janmachart during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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renal phys - Renal Physiology Workbook Questions: 1) What...

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