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Unformatted text preview: Final Study Guide - PHIL 105-21 Be prepared to articulate and explain... Unit 1 What is Philosophy? Psychological Origins: Natural attitude common/normal/default. Not looking at it critically, take as evidence Universal assumptions 1. There is a reality 2. Reality is a certain way/ordered 3. Beliefs about reality can be correct, incorrect, or somewhere in between If you inquire as to how things are, then you already have assumptions in place *Philosophical attitude consider evidence as evidence. Critique. 3-fold structure of worldview This attitude could change everything in our worldview Evidence and Argument: *Reasons evidence recognized and motivation for believing evidence Relates to evidence/argumentation argument needs reason and evidence to be valid/sound *State of affairs the way things could be Modus ponens P Q. P. Q Modus tollens P Q. ~Q. ~P Fallacies Denying the antecedent P Q. ~P. ~Q Affirming the consequent P Q. Q. P Begging the question Circular reasoning Ex: The Bible is infallible and true because it says so Validity has truth-preserving form (modus ponens/tollens) Soundness valid AND true Historical Origins: Pre-Socratics Not very showy. Dont do it for money Like to talk of things above/below the earth Knowledge-oriented Epistemological and metaphysical Permanence and change Appearance and reality Themes First Principle world/its various forms are either constitutional or explained by one underlying element/cause Monism everything really made up of just one thing Dep pluralism theres something thats the cause or principle of everything else Sophists Very showy, try to trick people, eloquent Like to speak in public settings, more political. Do it for money Success = success in polis Love to win arguments Art of rhetoric Talking points Nature of reality Seek truth by asking questions, examining self/others Individualistic Sophists/Pre-Socratics bridge gap to Plato Two virtues: excellence/morals Pre-socratics/sophists paved way for Plato to be able to come to these conclusions (things above/below earth, success, seeking truth, nature of reality) The Nature, Aspirations and Preconditions of Philosophy: Preconditions of Philosophy: Necessary to be a true/good philosopher in what way are these necessary? Moral Intellect Necessary to develop other virtues to make right use of reason possible. Nature of philos education cave allegory In cave (visible realm): shadows artifacts Outside cave (intelligible realm): Images things themselves the Sun Relates to education Reactions: confusion disbelief pain/irritation incapacity/incompetence happiness/pity Causes a love of truth over honor/possessions...
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