2012-02-13 K9 and Fel Food

2012-02-13 K9 and Fel Food - Canine and Feline Nutrition...

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Unformatted text preview: Canine and Feline Nutrition Dr. N. Matthew Ellinwood, D.V.M., Ph.D. Spring 2012 I OWA S TATE U NIVERSITY C OLLEGE OF A GRICULTURE AND L IFE S CIENCES Overview Species specific requirements Inborn errors of metabolism Review of fatty acids Dog nutritional requirements Feeding strategies Cat nutritional requirements Feeding strategies Intake levels: % of body wt daily Animal: Dog Cat Growing, early 7.0 (est.) 7.0-8.0 (10wks) Growing, late 4.0-5.0 (est.) 4.0 (40 wks) Adult, maint. 2.5 2.2 Adult, active 5.0-7.5 2.5 Gestating 2.5-3.0 3.1 Lactating 7.5 7.0-8.0 General Dietary Recommendations for Growing Animals: Nutrient Cat Dog Protein: 24% 22% Lysine 0.8% 0.5% Arginine 1.0% 0.5% Fat: 8-12% 5% Linoleic acid 0.5% 1.0% Arachidonic acid 0.02%--- Species Specific Requirements What causes them? http://katara.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/animals.jpg Inborn Errors of Metabolism Archibald Garrod 18571936 1902 paper : The incidence of alkaptonuria: A study in chemical individuality Inborn Errors of Metabolism George Wells Beadle and Edward L. Tatum Extended Garrods hypothesis from chemical individuality to one gene one enzyme hypothesis. Metabolic Disorders Defect or block in normal anabolic or catabolic biochemical pathways http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/protein.htm Common human disease example:- Phenylketonuria Alkaptonuria Genetic loss of Homogentisic acid oxidase Results In: Dark staining urine Pigment staining in tissue Arthritis Substrate Enzyme block Product Inborn Errors of Metabolism Genetically determined difference in enzyme activity At the species level leads to: Specific dietary requirements Essential vs. non-essential vitamins, amino acids, and fats Drug metabolism effects At the individual level leads to disease PKU, as an example in humans Essential Fatty Acids Saturated Fatty Acids No double Carbon/Carbon bonds Monounsaturated Fatty Acids One double Carbon/Carbon bond Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids More than one double Carbon/Carbon bond Omega 3 and Omega 6 Fatty Acids Dogs and cats are unable to synthesize PUFAs with C=C bonds at the 3 and/or 6 position Essential Fatty Acids Essential Fatty Acids 1 3 18 1 6 20 1 6 18 Cat Requirement of Arachidonic Acid Conversion of the substrate linoleic acid to arachidonic acid Two enzymatic reactions Desaturation and elongation Cats are unable to make this conversion Lack the proper enzymes Linoleic Acid -6-desaturase Gamma-Linoleic Acid elongase Dihomo-Gamma-Linoleic Acid -5-desaturase Arachidonic Acid Adapted from table in Fats You Need Essential Fatty Acids. Adapted from table in Fats You Need Essential Fatty Acids....
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2012-02-13 K9 and Fel Food - Canine and Feline Nutrition...

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